Science in the 20th Century and Beyond

Author: Jon Agar
Publisher: Polity
ISBN: 0745634699
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Surveying modern developments in science from 1900 to the present day, this fascinating volume explores Einstein's new physics, the Manhattan Project, eugenics, biotechnology, the Human Genome Project and much more.

Science Policies and Twentieth Century Dictatorships

Author: Amparo Gómez
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131705895X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Making a fresh contribution to the political history of science, this book explores the connections between the science policies of three countries that each experienced considerable political upheaval in the twentieth century: Spain, Italy and Argentina. By focussing on these three countries, the contributors are able to present case studies that highlight the characteristics and specificities of the democratic and dictatorial political processes involved in the production of science and technology. The focus on dictatorship presents the opportunity to expand our knowledge -beyond the more extensive literature about science in Nazi Germany and Stalinist USSR -about the level of political involvement of scientists in non-democratic contexts and to what extent they act as politicians in different contexts. Key topics covered include the new forms of organization and institutionalization of science in the twentieth century; the involvement of scientific communities in the governance of science and its institutions; the role of ideology in scientific development; the scientific practices adopted by scientific communities in different contexts; and the characteristics of science and technology produced in these contexts.

At War

Author: David Kieran
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 0813584329
Format: PDF, Docs
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The country’s wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, its interventions around the world, and its global military presence make war, the military, and militarism defining features of contemporary American life. The armed services and the wars they fight shape all aspects of life—from the formation of racial and gendered identities to debates over environmental and immigration policy. Warfare and the military are ubiquitous in popular culture. At War offers short, accessible essays addressing the central issues in the new military history—ranging from diplomacy and the history of imperialism to the environmental issues that war raises and the ways that war shapes and is shaped by discourses of identity, to questions of who serves in the U.S. military and why and how U.S. wars have been represented in the media and in popular culture.

Science

Author: Patricia Fara
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191655570
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Science: A Four Thousand Year History rewrites science's past. Instead of focussing on difficult experiments and abstract theories, Patricia Fara shows how science has always belonged to the practical world of war, politics, and business. Rather than glorifying scientists as idealized heroes, she tells true stories about real people - men (and some women) who needed to earn their living, who made mistakes, and who trampled down their rivals in their quest for success. Fara sweeps through the centuries, from ancient Babylon right up to the latest hi-tech experiments in genetics and particle physics, illuminating the financial interests, imperial ambitions, and publishing enterprises that have made science the powerful global phenomenon that it is today. She also ranges internationally, illustrating the importance of scientific projects based around the world, from China to the Islamic empire, as well as the more familiar tale of science in Europe, from Copernicus to Charles Darwin and beyond. Above all, this four thousand year history challenges scientific supremacy, arguing controversially that science is successful not because it is always right - but because people have said that it is right.

Science Technology and Latin American Narrative in the Twentieth Century and Beyond

Author: Jerry Hoeg
Publisher: Lehigh University Press
ISBN: 9780934223614
Format: PDF, Docs
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"Beginning with the scientific travelers and travelogues of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, this book traces the relations between the discourse of science and the discourse of literature through the influence of the human sciences in the first half of the twentieth century, and on to that of the communication and information sciences, including the new multimedia technologies in the second half of our century." "This book seeks to elucidate both the historical and the present responses of a technologically dependent culture to the discourse of science and technology, as these responses are represented in its literature. Additionally, the book endeavors to analyze the mutual influences of science, technology, and literature in order to ascertain the degree to which literature does serve, and might serve, to transform the roles of technology in Latin American society."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

War and Peace in the 20th Century and Beyond

Author: Geir Lundestad
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814487236
Format: PDF
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At the turn of the 21st Century, the world was immediately gripped by the War on Terrorism followed by the Iraq War. In reflection, the 20th Century was a period marked by tremendous technological and economic progress — but it was also the most violent century in human history. It witnessed two horrendous world wars, as well as the conflicts during the Cold War. Why do wars persistently erupt among nations, particularly the Great Powers? What are the primary factors that drive nations to violence — power, prestige, ideology or territory? Or is it motivated by pure fear and mistrust? Peering nervously at the 21st Century, we wonder whether American supremacy and globalization will help ensure peace and stability. Or will shifts in power with the emergence of new economic super-nations lead to further tensions and conflicts in this century? Together with 29 Peace Nobel laureates, an outstanding group of scholars gathered in Oslo, Norway, on December 6, 2001, for the three-day Nobel Centennial Symposium to discuss “The Conflicts of the 20th Century and the Solutions for the 21st Century”. Read this book for the scholars' candid insights and analyses, as well as their thought-provoking views on the factors that led to conflicts in the 20th Century and whether the 21st Century will be a more peaceful one. This is a rare — and possibly the best and only — book compilation of the highly intellectual analyses by world experts and Nobel Peace laureates on the perennial issues of War & Peace. Contents:Introduction: The Conflicts of the 20th Century and the Solutions for the 21st Century, Geir Lundestad & Olav Njølstad, The Norwegian Nobel InstituteDialogue and Cooperation to Achieve World Peace, Dae-Jung Kim, ex-President, The Republic of KoreaWar and Peace in the 20th Century, Eric Hobsbawm, Birkbeck College, University of LondonIdeologies and Polities: Liberal Democracy and National Dictatorship in Peace and, War Michael W Doyle, Princeton UniversityMaking Sense of Political Violence in Postcolonial Africa, Mahmood Mamdani, Columbia UniversityGlobal Inequality and Persistent Conflicts, Amartya Sen, University of Cambridge (UK), and the 1998 Nobel Prize winner in Economic SciencesThe Rise and Fall of Great Powers, Joseph S Nye, Harvard UniversityBeyond Militarism, Arms Races and Arms Control, Mary H Kaldor, London School of EconomicsRivalry over Territory and Resources and the Balance of Peace and War: The 20th Century, Louise Fawcett, St Catherine's College, Oxford UniversityMisperception, Mistrust, Fear, Akira Iriye, Harvard UniversityThe Nobel Peace Prize in Its Next Century: Old and New Dimensions, Geir Lundestad, The Norwegian Nobel Institute Readership: Students, researchers, academics, politicians, journalists, and anyone interested in 20th century history and peace and conflict studies. Keywords:War;Peace;20th Century;Conflicts and Solutions Nobel SymposiumReviews:“This beautifully produced and edited volume presents a fascinating collection of essays structured around the objectives engendered by the awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize … this ensemble of contributions provides an excellent insight into the evolution of thinking about war and peace. As a reflection upon these crucial issues, it is readable, informative and highly recommended.”Journal of Peace Research

Beyond History of Science

Author: Elizabeth Garber
Publisher: Lehigh University Press
ISBN: 9780934223119
Format: PDF, ePub
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This collection focuses on the intellectual development of the sciences, their relationships with technology, and their place in culture in general including a proposed realignment of science, technology, and art.

Beyond Positivism

Author: Bruce Caldwell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134838638
Format: PDF
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Since its publication in 1982, Beyond Positivism has become established as one of the definitive statements on economic methodology. The book’s rejection of positivism and its advocacy of pluralism were to have a profound influence in the flowering of work methodology that has taken place in economics in the decade since its publication. This edition contains a new preface outlining the major developments in the area since the book’s first appearance. The book provides the first comprehensive treatment of twentieth century philosophy of science which emphasizes the issues relevant to economics. It proceeds to demonstrate this relevance by reviewing some of the key debates in the area. Having concluded that positivism has to be rejected, the author examines possible alternative bases for economic methodology. Arguing that there is no best method, he advocates methodological pluralism.

Beyond Borders

Author: Pedro Ruiz-Castell and Ximo Guillem-Llobat
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443811475
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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How does scientific knowledge circulate? Does scientific communication shape the making of science? Is the making of science a national endeavour or does it have an international or transnational dimension? Are teaching and research equally relevant in this endeavour? How can history of science react to the challenges posed by the changing practices of science in historical context? Beyond Borders is a book generated at the heart of these fundamental questions. In the last decades, the history of science has attained a high degree of disciplinary maturity and sophistication. However, perception of disciplinary crisis is apparent behind calls for the search of new “big pictures” and their implementation in teaching and communicating the history of science to wider audiences. Temporal and narrative fragmentation are seen as major drawbacks hindering the development of the discipline. In addition, national, linguistic and methodological division is increasingly afflicting its practice. Like other areas in the humanities, and in contrast to the sciences, the history of science has nowadays a pronounced local character which clearly constrains its intellectual output. Challenging this state of affairs is a major aim of this book, which argues for a resolute call for intellectual and methodological pluralism and internationalism. Through a broad diversity of subjects, periods, and geographies, covering from studies of sixteenth-century astrological texts to contextual analysis of twentieth-century X-ray spectroscopy, this collection of papers and historiographical essays offers a fresh overview of the field and its major questions. Beyond Borders revisits five major topics in history of science, namely the early modern map of knowledge, pedagogy and science, science popularization, science and the nation and the geography of scientific centres and peripheries. Engaging with a broad diversity of historiographical and methodological approaches in an international perspective, Beyond Borders is a rich and plural manifesto contributing to the reflective appraisal of history of science as a discipline.