Science Policy Ethics and Economic Methodology

Author: Kristin Shrader-Frechette
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400964498
Format: PDF
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If indeed scientists and technologists, especially economists, set much of the agenda by which the future is played out, and I think they do, then the student of scientific methodology and public ethics has at least three options. He can embrace certain scientific methods and the value they hold for social decisionmaking, much as Milton Friedman has accepted neoclassical econom ics. Or, he can condemn them, regardless of their value, much as Stuart Hampshire has rejected risk-cost-benefit analysis (RCBA). Finally, he can critically assess these scientific methods and attempt to provide solutions to the problems he has uncovered. As a philosopher of science seeking the middle path between uncritical acceptance and extremist rejection of the economic methods used in policy analysis, I have tried to avoid the charge of being "anti science". Fred Hapgood, in response to my presentation at a recent Boston Colloquium for the Philosophy of Science, said that my arguments "felt like" a call for rejection of the methods of risk-cost-benefit analysis. Not so, as Chapter Two of this volume should make eminently clear. All my criticisms are construc tive ones, and the flaws in economic methodology which I address are uncovered for the purpose of suggesting means of making good techniques better. Likewise, although I criticize the economic methodology by which many technology assessments (TA's) and environmental-impact analyses (EIA's) have been used to justify public projects, it is wrong to conclude that I am anti-technology.

Christian Ethics in a Technological Age

Author: Brian Brock
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
ISBN: 0802865178
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Through close analysis of the historical and conceptual roots of modern science and technology, Brian Brock here develops a theological ethic addressing a wide range of contemporary perplexities about the moral challenges raised by new technology.

Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Policies procedures and cross sectoral issues

Author:
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821318430
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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World Bank Technical Paper No. 139. Also available: Volume 2 (ISBN 0-8213-1844-6) Stock No. 11844; Volume 3 (ISBN 0-8213-1845-4) Stock No. 11845. Provides state-of-the-art guidance and information on the procedural requirements and practical aspects of environmental assessment in various sector- and location-specific contexts. Three volumes also available in Arabic: Volume 1 (ISBN 0-8213-3523-5) Stock No. 13523; Volume 2 (ISBN 0-8213-3617-7) Stock No. 13617; Volume 3 (ISBN 0-8213-3618-5) Stock No. 13618.

Science Technology and Society

Author: Wenceslao J. González
Publisher: Netbiblo
ISBN: 9780972989220
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The emphasis on the realm of Science, Technology and Society or Science and Technology Studies may have the same degree of relevance that the “historical turn” had in the past. It is a “social turn” which affects philosophy of science as well as philosophy of technology. It includes a new vision of the aims, processes and results of scientific activities and technological doings, because the focus of attention is on several aspects of science and technology which used to be considered as secondary, or even irrelevant. This turn highlights science and technology as social undertakings rather than intellectual contents. According to this new vision, there are several important changes as to what should be studied the objects of research, how it should be studied the method and what the consequences for those studies are. The new focus of attention can be seen in many changes, and among them are several of special interest: a) from what science and technology are in themselves (mainly, epistemic contents) to how science and technology are made (largely, social constructions); b) from the language and structure of basic science to the characteristics of applied science and the applications of science; c) from technology as a feature through which human beings control their natural surroundings (a step beyond “technics” due to the contribution of science) to technology as a social practice and an instrument of power; and d) from the role of internal values necessary for “mature science” and “innovative technology” to the role of contextual or external values (cultural, political, economic ...) of science and technology. Wenceslao J. Gonzalez is professor of logic and philosophy of science at the University of A Coruña (Spain). He has been vicedean of the School of Humanities and president of the Committee of Doctoral Programs at the University. He has been a visting researcher at the Universities of St. Andrews, Münster and London (London School of Economics), as well as Visiting fellow at the Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh. He has given lectures at the Universities of Pittsburgh, Stanford, Quebec and Helsinki. The conferences in which he has participated include those organized by the Universities of Uppsala, New South Wales, Bologne and Canterbury (New Zealand). He has edited 20 volumes and published 70 papers. He is the editor of the monographic issues on Philosophy and Methodology of Economics (1998) and Lakatos’s Philosophy Today (2001). His writings include “Economic Prediction and Human Activity. An Analysis of Prediction in Economics from Action Theory” (1994), “On the Theoretical Basis of Prediction in Economics” (1996), “Rationality in Economics and Scientific Predictions: A Critical Reconstruction of Bounded Rationality and its Role in Economic Predictions” (1997), “Lakatos’s Approach on Prediction and Novel Facts” (2001), “Rationality in Experimental Economics: An Analysis of R. Selten’s Approach” (2003), “From ErklärenVerstehen to PredictionUnderstanding: The Methodological Framework in Economics” (2003), and “The Many Faces of Popper’s Methodological Approach to Prediction” (2004).

The Political Theories of Risk Analysis

Author: Nicholas P. Guehlstorf
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402028816
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The purpose of this study is to question whether liberal political theories ought to inform the way policymakers and administrators analyze risk in proposed courses of environmental practice. In order to explore the relationship of liberal theory to rational practice in environmental policy, this project examines the risk analysis used to approve the genetically engineered bovine growth hormone in American agricultural policy. The Political Theories of Risk Analysis suggests that American environmental public policy is attempting to assess danger with an incomplete notion of utility, to eliminate the hazards of society with an inadequate contractual justification of political authority, and to publicly debate accepted levels of risk with an unfulfilled critical social theory. Because environmental risk analyses are incorrectly perceived as technically rational and socially apolitical, they result in practices that are muddled and misdirected. Making theoretical foundations explicit, however, could lead to improved practice. Public policy and administrative decisions regarding agricultural biotechnologies should and can function with more concern for democratic values. The Political Theories of Risk Analysis is for environmental scientists, philosophers, public policy planners, applied ethicists, political scientists and environmentalists.

The Philosophy of Economics

Author: Daniel M. Hausman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521883504
Format: PDF, ePub
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An anthology of works on the philosophy of economics, including classic texts and essays exploring specific branches and schools of economics. Completely revamped, this edition contains new selections, a revised introduction and a bibliography. The volume contains 26 chapters organized into five parts: (I) Classic Discussions, (II) Positivist and Popperian Views, (III) Ideology and Normative Economics, (IV) Branches and Schools of Economics and Their Methodological Problems and (V) New Directions in Economic Methodology. It includes crucial historical contributions by figures such as Mill, Marx, Weber, Robbins, Knight, and Veblen and works by most of the leading contemporary figures writing on economic methodology, including five Nobel Laureates in Economics.

Economic Methodology

Author: Deborah A. Redman
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A comprehensive bibliography of economic methodological works since 1860, this volume includes 2,244 entries divided into two primary sections. The first section covers works on economic methodology while Part Two deals with works on the philosophy of science. The inclusion of works by philosophers of science reflects the prevalence of references to their works both in contemporary economic literature and throughout the period covered. Many of the entries are annotated, including the classics in economic methodology, almost all of the books, and general works in the philosophy of science section. All other sections include an introduction to the topic and the articles listed under that heading. By collecting these works together in one source for the first time, compiler Deborah Redman has performed a major service for students, researchers, and scholars of economics, as well as interested philosophers and other social scientists. Part One, on methodology, is divided into twenty-five sections devoted to such issues as the Friedman controversy, the is-ought dichotomy, the role of ethics and values in economics, the Cambridge controversy, and more. Individual economists like Samuelson and Friedman, who have had a major influence on the discipline, are treated in separate categories. In addition, individual sections address quantification, theory, econometrics, rationality, and the positions of the Austrians, the new group of rhetoricians, the institutionalists, and others. Part Two begins by providing introductory texts and background sources for those with little prior exposure to works in the philosophy of science. The remaining eleven sections are organized around the philosophies of science that economists have incorporated into their economic philosophies. Hence works by and on Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn, Imre Lakatos, Paul Feyerabend, and the German structuralists appear as categories. Additional sections cover holism and the Duhem thesis, the relationship between the history and philosophy of science, and miscellaneous works. Author and subject indexes complete the volume.