Security of Water Supply Systems

Author: Jaroslav Pollert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402045639
Format: PDF
Download Now
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Security of Water Supply Systems: From Source to Tap, held in Murter, Croatia, 27-31 May 2005

Risk Management of Water Supply and Sanitation Systems

Author: Petr Hlavinek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048123658
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Each year more than 200 million people are affected by floods, tropical storms, droughts, earthquakes, and also operational failures, wars, terrorism, vandalism, and accidents involving hazardous materials. These are part of the wide variety of events that cause death, injury, and significant economic losses for the countries affected. In an environment where natural hazards are present, local actions are decisive in all stages of risk management: in the work of prevention and mitigation, in rehabilitation and reconstruction, and above all in emergency response and the provision of basic services to the affected population. Commitment to systematic vulnerability reduction is crucial to ensure the resilience of communities and populations to the impact of natural and manmade hazards. Current challenges for the water and sanitation sector require an increase in sustainable access to water and sanitation services in residential areas, where natural hazards pose the greatest risk. In settlements located on unstable and risk-prone land there is growing environmental degradation coupled with extreme conditions of poverty that increase vulnerability. The development of local capacity and risk management play vital roles in obtaining sustainability of water and sanitation systems as well as for the communities themselves. Unfortunately water may also represent a potential target for terrorist activity or war conflict and a deliberate contamination of water is a potential public health threat. An approach which considers the needs of communities and institutions is particularly important in urban areas affected by armed conflict. Risk management for large rehabilitation projects has to deal with major changes caused by conflict: damaged or destroyed infrastructure, increased population, corrupt or inefficient water utilities, and impoverished communities. Water supply and sanitation are amongst the first considerations in disaster response. The greatest water-borne risk to health in most emergencies is the transmission of faecal pathogens, due to inadequate sanitation, hygiene and protection of water sources. However, some disasters, including those involving damage to chemical and nuclear industrial installations, or involving volcanic activity, may create acute problems from chemical or radiological water pollution. Sanitation includes safe excreta disposal, drainage of wastewater and rainwater, solid waste disposal and vector control. This book is based on the discussions and papers prepared for the NATO Advanced Research Workshop that took place in Ohrid, Macedonia under the auspices of the NATO Security Through Science Programme and addressed problems Risk management of water supply and sanitation systems impaired by operational failures, natural disasters and war conflicts. The main purpose of the workshop was to critically assess the existing knowledge on Risk management of water supply and sanitation systems, with respect to diverse conditions in participating countries, and promote close co-operation among scientists with different professional experience from different countries. The ARW technical program comprised papers on 4 topics, : (a) Vulnerability of Wastewater and Sanitation Systems, (b) Vulnerability of Drinking Water Systems, (c) Emergency response plans, and (d) Case studies from regions affected by Drinking Water System, Wastewater and Sanitation System failures.

Survival and Sustainability

Author: Hüseyin Gökçekus
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540959915
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
The International Conference on Environment: Survival and Sustainability, held at the Near East University, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus 19-24 February 2007, dealt with environmental threats and proposed solutions at all scales. The 21 themes addressed by the conference fell into four broad categories; Threats to Survival and Sustainability; Technological Advances towards Survival and Sustainability; Activities and Tools for Social Change; Defining Goals for Sustainable Societies. Activities and tools that move the society towards greater sustainability were emphasized at the conference. These included environmental law and ethics, environmental knowledge, technology and information systems, media, environmental awareness, education and lifelong learning, the use of literature for environmental awareness, the green factor in politics, international relations and environmental organizations. The breadth of the issues addressed at the conference made clear the need for greatly increased interdisciplinary and international collaboration the survival and sustainability concept. The exchanges at the conference represent a step in this direction.

Advanced Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment A Road to Safer Society and Environment

Author: Petr Hlavinek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400702795
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Stable, safe, secure and readily available water supply is one of the key factors in ensuring a good level of the public health and a stable society. Scientific assessments show that about 80 % of diseases and one-third of the total death toll in the developing countries are caused by the low quality of the drinking water. Other countries are also suffering from water shortages and insufficient quality of the drinking water. Many rivers in Europe and in other parts of the world are significantly polluted by insufficiently treated or untreated wastewater discharge. This book is based on the discussions and papers prepared for the NATO Advanced Research Workshop that took place in Lviv, Ukraine, and addressed recent advances in water supply and wastewater treatment as a prerequisite for a safer society and environment. The contributions critically assess the existing knowledge on urban water management and provide an overview of the current water management issues, especially in the countries in transition in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Mediterranean Dialogue countries.

Water Treatment Technologies for the Removal of High Toxity Pollutants

Author: Miroslava Václavíková
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9048134978
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Water is essential for life, a strategic resource for every country and population. Its availability and sanitary safety is highly connected with the health and economy status of population. Burden of disease due to polluted water is a major public health problem throughout the world. Many pollutants in water streams have been identified as toxic and harmful to the environment and human health, and among them arsenic, mercury and cadmium are considered as high priority ones. Providing population with safe drinking water became the priority and at the same time a big challenge for the modern society. Many funding agencies in various countries have assigned a high priority to the envir- mental security and pollution prevention. UN, being one of them, launched the “International Decade for Action: Water for life 2005–2015. ” Therefore, today’s political and social climate presents an important opportunity to implement principles of sustainable development and to preserve resources essential for future life. This process requires interdisciplinary approach; it is critically important to stimulate interactions between medical doctors, chemists, physicist, materials scientists, engineers and policy makers, which are already experienced in their specific areas. It is also our ethical obligation to preserve existing water resources and existing eco systems enhancing their biodiversity. The NATO Advanced Research Workshop “Water Treatment Te- nologies for the Removal of High-Toxicity Pollutants” took place on September 13–17, 2008 in Košice, Slovak Republic.

Riverbank Filtration for Water Security in Desert Countries

Author: Chittaranjan Ray
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400700261
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Riverbank filtration is a low cost, yet efficient water treatment technology. It has most potential to provide safe drinking water to large cities located along rivers or lakes. In particular, it is ideal for large population centres in developing countries, where the cost of building extensive treatment facilities is prohibitive. Water filtration can be successfully implemented using naturally occurring sand and gravel along the river/lake banks. The cost of water produced by this means is much lower than that of water treated in conventional treatment plants. Authored by a multi-disciplinary team of experts, this volume addresses the scientific basis of the filtration process, and also numerous topics of importance for the planning, technical realization, and security of such plants. Their application for the removal of relevant chemical pollutants and a variety of pathogens is analysed in detail.

Water Purification and Management

Author: José Coca-Prados
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048197740
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
One of the major challenges for many Mediterranean and other countries is finding viable solutions to tackle water shortage. Some of the major water quality constraints derive from the high salinity of groundwater and from pollution sources such as: untreated domestic sewage, fertilizers and pesticides from irrigation drainage, industrial effluents, and solid waste disposal. Wastewater treatment processes involving physico-chemical and biological treatment, chemical oxidation, membrane technologies, along with methods of solids concentration and disposal are of special relevance in dealing with these problems. This volume contains selected lectures presented at the NATO ADVANCED TRAINING COURSE held in Oviedo (November 15-21, 2009) and sponsored by the NATO Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme. They cover a variety of topics from wastewater treatment methods to cleaner production strategies, as a careful management of water resources is the basis for sustainable development and to avoid potential security threats. The reader will benefit from a general view of some of the operations involved in wastewater treatment and solid concentration and disposal methods. A proper water reuse and recycling, together with efficient solid disposal, would contribute to a better use of the resources and a sustainable economic growth, particularly in many arid lands of the world.

Water Supply Systems

Author: Cedo Maksimovic
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642611877
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Technology now affects almost every aspect of Water Supply Management, Operation, Planning and Design; the speed of development means that assessing what is "new" is sometimes difficult. Old ideas can now be applied because of new technology; technology is now revealing problems that were unnoticed 10 years ago. Some emerging technologies promise much but are still underdeveloped for use in real world conditions, while we should always remember that "new" technology depends upon the state of development in respective countries, a point which is particularly relevant to the NATO Advanced Study Institute, for which this book has been produced. Thus our objective in producing the book has been to highlight, in a wide range of technical areas, where and how technology is being applied, what is "new" and what the limitations of these technologies are in the real world. We have also tried to provide an European and American perspective where possible to illustrate how problems are tackled in different cultural environments. It is probably true that "technology" is also somewhat dependent upon the political, economic and organisational climate in different countries and we have included a chapter covering these aspects.

Energy and Environmental Challenges to Security

Author: Stephen Stec
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402094515
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
On 21 November 2007 the grand and elegant Delegates Hall of the Hungarian Parliament was the scene of the opening of a conference to discuss some of the most pressing issues of the day, those related to our unending thirst for energy, its environmental consequences, and the challenges that these bear on security. Over the next 3 days scientists, parliamentarians and their guests confronted, challenged, teased and cajoled each other in a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) entitled “Energy and Environmental Challenges to Security,” affirming that knowledge and public service hold the keys to solving our greatest challenges. The magnitude of the security challenge was confirmed while this volume was being prepared. In mid-2008, the International Energy Agency issued a report concluding that US$45 trillion would be needed over the next half century to prevent energy shortages and greenhouse gas emissions from undermining global economic growth. But lest such large numbers cause us all to shrug, this volume brings attention to some of the more manageable aspects of the environment and energy security challenge – from addressing conflict resources such as illegal timber that contribute to corruption and regional instability, to means and mechanisms to enable the diversification of energy supplies, to environmental risk reduction strategies for particular installations. The participants in the Hungarian Parliament building were atypical for a NATO Advanced Research Workshop.