The Semantic Turn

Author: Klaus Krippendorff
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203299957
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Responding to cultural demands for meaning, user-friendliness, and fun as well as the opportunities of the emerging information society, The Semantic Turn boldly outlines a new science for design that gives designers previously unavailable grounds on which to state their claims and validate their designs. It sets the stage by reviewing the history of semantic concerns in design, presenting their philosophical roots, examining the new social and technological challenges that professional designers are facing, and offering distinctions among contemporary artifacts that challenge designers. Written by Klaus Krippendorff, recognized designer and distinguished scholar of communication and language use, the book builds an epistemological bridge between language/communication theory and human-centered conceptions of contemporary artifacts. Clarifying how the semantic turn goes beyond product semantics and differs from other approaches to meaning, Krippendorff develops four new theories of how artifacts make sense and presents a series of meaning-sensitive design methods, illustrated by examples, and evaluative techniques that radically depart from the functionalist and technology-centered tradition in design. An indispensable guide for the future of the design profession, this book outlines not only a science for design that encourages asking and answering new kinds of questions, it also provides concepts and a vocabulary that enables designers to better partner with the more traditional disciplines of engineering, ergonomics, ecology, cognitive science, information technology, management, and marketing.

Understanding Computers and Cognition

Author: Terry Winograd
Publisher: Intellect Books
ISBN: 9780893910501
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Understanding Computers and Cognition presents an important and controversial new approach to understanding what computers do and how their functioning is related to human language, thought, and action. While it is a book about computers, Understanding Computers and Cognition goes beyond the specific issues of what computers can or can't do. It is a broad-ranging discussion exploring the background of understanding in which the discourse about computers and technology takes place. Understanding Computers and Cognition is written for a wide audience, not just those professionals involved in computer design or artificial intelligence. It represents an important contribution to the ongoing discussion about what it means to be a machine, and what it means to be human.

Foundations of Semantic Web Technologies

Author: Pascal Hitzler
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420090512
Format: PDF, Kindle
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With more substantial funding from research organizations and industry, numerous large-scale applications, and recently developed technologies, the Semantic Web is quickly emerging as a well-recognized and important area of computer science. While Semantic Web technologies are still rapidly evolving, Foundations of Semantic Web Technologies focuses on the established foundations in this area that have become relatively stable over time. It thoroughly covers basic introductions and intuitions, technical details, and formal foundations. The book concentrates on Semantic Web technologies standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium: RDF and SPARQL enable data exchange and querying, RDFS and OWL provide expressive ontology modeling, and RIF supports rule-based modeling. The text also describes methods for specifying, querying, and reasoning with ontological information. In addition, it explores topics that are clearly beyond foundations, such as tools, applications, and engineering aspects. Written by highly respected researchers with a deep understanding of the material, this text centers on the formal specifications of the subject and supplies many pointers that are useful for employing Semantic Web technologies in practice. The book has an accompanying website with supplemental information.

Theoretical Aspects of Object oriented Programming

Author: Carl A. Gunter
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262071550
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Although the theory of object-oriented programming languages is far from complete, this book brings together the most important contributions to its development to date, focusing in particular on how advances in type systems and semantic models can contribute to new language designs.The fifteen chapters are divided into five parts: Objects and Subtypes, Type Inference, Coherence, Record Calculi, and Inheritance. The chapters are organized approximately in order of increasing complexity of the programming language constructs they consider - beginning with variations on Pascal- and Algol-like languages, developing the theory of illustrative record object models, and concluding with research directions for building a more comprehensive theory of object-oriented programming languages.Part I discusses the similarities and differences between "objects" and algebraic-style abstract data types, and the fundamental concept of a subtype. Parts II-IV are concerned with the "record model" of object-oriented languages. Specifically, these chapters discuss static and dynamic semantics of languages with simple object models that include a type or class hierarchy but do not explicitly provide what is often called dynamic binding. Part V considers extensions and modifications to record object models, moving closer to the full complexity of practical object-oriented languages.Carl A. Gunter is Professor in the Department of Computer and Information Science at the University of Pennsylvania. John C. Mitchell is Professor in the Department of Computer Science at Stanford University.

Foundations of Web Design

Author: Thomas Michaud
Publisher: New Riders
ISBN: 0133408469
Format: PDF, Kindle
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If you are a beginner who needs a solid grounding in the best practices for creating websites, this book is for you. Written by innovative curriculum developer and university web instructor Thomas Michaud, this book provides an accessible yet comprehensive look at web design and front-end coding, covering HTML, CSS, design principles and more. You’ll learn HTML semantics, structure, and validation, and how to separate content from design using CSS (levels 1, 2, and 3). Online videos and code examples let you follow along and practice with the code. Some of the other things you’ll learn about include: • text elements, links, objects, and tables • using the box model for background images, padding, borders, and margins • fixed vs. liquid page layout • choosing between different navigation models • creating and styling forms • interactive design with JavaScript and jQuery Foundations of Web Design is an indispensable resource to quickly take you from sketching to coding.

Foundations of Intensional Semantics

Author: Chris Fox
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470775297
Format: PDF
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This book provides a systematic study of three foundational issues in the semantics of natural language that have been relatively neglected in the past few decades. focuses on the formal characterization of intensions, the nature of an adequate type system for natural language semantics, and the formal power of the semantic representation language proposes a theory that offers a promising framework for developing a computational semantic system sufficiently expressive to capture the properties of natural language meaning while remaining computationally tractable written by two leading researchers and of interest to students and researchers in formal semantics, computational linguistics, logic, artificial intelligence, and the philosophy of language

How Biology Shapes Philosophy

Author: David Livingstone Smith
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107055830
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A collection of original essays by major thinkers, addressing how the biological sciences inform and inspire philosophical research.

Ontology Engineering with Ontology Design Patterns Foundations and Applications

Author: P. Hitzler
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1614996768
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The use of ontologies for data and knowledge organization has become ubiquitous in many data-intensive and knowledge-driven application areas, in science, industry, and the humanities. At the same time, ontology engineering best practices continue to evolve. In particular, modular ontology modeling based on ontology design patterns is establishing itself as an approach for creating versatile and extendable ontologies for data management and integration. This book is the very first comprehensive treatment of Ontology Engineering with Ontology Design Patterns. It contains both advanced and introductory material accessible for readers with only a minimal background in ontology modeling. Some introductory material is written in the style of tutorials, and specific chapters are devoted to examples and to applications. Other chapters convey the state of the art in research regarding ontology design patterns. The editors and the contributing authors include the leading contributors to the development of ontology-design-pattern-driven ontology engineering.

Emotionally Durable Design

Author: Jonathan Chapman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317574826
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Emotionally Durable Design presents counterpoints to our ‘throwaway society’ by developing powerful design tools, methods and frameworks that build resilience into relationships between people and things. The book takes us beyond the sustainable design field’s established focus on energy and materials, to engage the underlying psychological phenomena that shape patterns of consumption and waste. In fluid and accessible writing, the author asks: why do we discard products that still work? He then moves forward to define strategies for the design of products that people want to keep for longer. Along the way we are introduced to over twenty examples of emotional durability in smart phones, shoes, chairs, clocks, teacups, toasters, boats and other material experiences. Emotionally Durable Design transcends the prevailing doom and gloom rhetoric of sustainability discourse, to pioneer a more hopeful, meaningful and resilient form of material culture. This second edition features pull-out quotes, illustrated product examples, a running glossary and comprehensive stand firsts; this book can be read cover to cover, or dipped in-and-out of. It is a daring call to arms for professional designers, educators, researchers and students from in a range of disciplines from product design to architecture; framing an alternative genre of design that reduces the consumption and waste of resources by increasing the durability of relationships between people and things.