The Semantic Turn

Author: Klaus Krippendorff
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203299957
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Responding to cultural demands for meaning, user-friendliness, and fun as well as the opportunities of the emerging information society, The Semantic Turn boldly outlines a new science for design that gives designers previously unavailable grounds on which to state their claims and validate their designs. It sets the stage by reviewing the history of semantic concerns in design, presenting their philosophical roots, examining the new social and technological challenges that professional designers are facing, and offering distinctions among contemporary artifacts that challenge designers. Written by Klaus Krippendorff, recognized designer and distinguished scholar of communication and language use, the book builds an epistemological bridge between language/communication theory and human-centered conceptions of contemporary artifacts. Clarifying how the semantic turn goes beyond product semantics and differs from other approaches to meaning, Krippendorff develops four new theories of how artifacts make sense and presents a series of meaning-sensitive design methods, illustrated by examples, and evaluative techniques that radically depart from the functionalist and technology-centered tradition in design. An indispensable guide for the future of the design profession, this book outlines not only a science for design that encourages asking and answering new kinds of questions, it also provides concepts and a vocabulary that enables designers to better partner with the more traditional disciplines of engineering, ergonomics, ecology, cognitive science, information technology, management, and marketing.

Understanding Computers and Cognition

Author: Terry Winograd
Publisher: Intellect Books
ISBN: 9780893910501
Format: PDF
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Understanding Computers and Cognition presents an important and controversial new approach to understanding what computers do and how their functioning is related to human language, thought, and action. While it is a book about computers, Understanding Computers and Cognition goes beyond the specific issues of what computers can or can't do. It is a broad-ranging discussion exploring the background of understanding in which the discourse about computers and technology takes place. Understanding Computers and Cognition is written for a wide audience, not just those professionals involved in computer design or artificial intelligence. It represents an important contribution to the ongoing discussion about what it means to be a machine, and what it means to be human.

Foundations of Semantic Web Technologies

Author: Pascal Hitzler
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420090512
Format: PDF, Mobi
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With more substantial funding from research organizations and industry, numerous large-scale applications, and recently developed technologies, the Semantic Web is quickly emerging as a well-recognized and important area of computer science. While Semantic Web technologies are still rapidly evolving, Foundations of Semantic Web Technologies focuses on the established foundations in this area that have become relatively stable over time. It thoroughly covers basic introductions and intuitions, technical details, and formal foundations. The book concentrates on Semantic Web technologies standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium: RDF and SPARQL enable data exchange and querying, RDFS and OWL provide expressive ontology modeling, and RIF supports rule-based modeling. The text also describes methods for specifying, querying, and reasoning with ontological information. In addition, it explores topics that are clearly beyond foundations, such as tools, applications, and engineering aspects. Written by highly respected researchers with a deep understanding of the material, this text centers on the formal specifications of the subject and supplies many pointers that are useful for employing Semantic Web technologies in practice. The book has an accompanying website with supplemental information.

Semantics of Programming Languages

Author: Carl A. Gunter
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262570954
Format: PDF, ePub
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Semantics of Programming Languages exposes the basic motivations and philosophy underlying the applications of semantic techniques in computer science. It introduces the mathematical theory of programming languages with an emphasis on higher-order functions and type systems. Designed as a text for upper-level and graduate-level students, the mathematically sophisticated approach will also prove useful to professionals who want an easily referenced description of fundamental results and calculi.Basic connections between computational behavior, denotational semantics, and the equational logic of functional programs are thoroughly and rigorously developed. Topics covered include models of types, operational semantics, category theory, domain theory, fixed point (denotational). semantics, full abstraction and other semantic correspondence criteria, types and evaluation, type checking and inference, parametric polymorphism, and subtyping. All topics are treated clearly and in depth, with complete proofs for the major results and numerous exercises.

Foundations of Web Design

Author: Thomas Michaud
Publisher: New Riders
ISBN: 0133408469
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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If you are a beginner who needs a solid grounding in the best practices for creating websites, this book is for you. Written by innovative curriculum developer and university web instructor Thomas Michaud, this book provides an accessible yet comprehensive look at web design and front-end coding, covering HTML, CSS, design principles and more. You’ll learn HTML semantics, structure, and validation, and how to separate content from design using CSS (levels 1, 2, and 3). Online videos and code examples let you follow along and practice with the code. Some of the other things you’ll learn about include: • text elements, links, objects, and tables • using the box model for background images, padding, borders, and margins • fixed vs. liquid page layout • choosing between different navigation models • creating and styling forms • interactive design with JavaScript and jQuery Foundations of Web Design is an indispensable resource to quickly take you from sketching to coding.

Ontology Engineering with Ontology Design Patterns Foundations and Applications

Author: P. Hitzler
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1614996768
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The use of ontologies for data and knowledge organization has become ubiquitous in many data-intensive and knowledge-driven application areas, in science, industry, and the humanities. At the same time, ontology engineering best practices continue to evolve. In particular, modular ontology modeling based on ontology design patterns is establishing itself as an approach for creating versatile and extendable ontologies for data management and integration. This book is the very first comprehensive treatment of Ontology Engineering with Ontology Design Patterns. It contains both advanced and introductory material accessible for readers with only a minimal background in ontology modeling. Some introductory material is written in the style of tutorials, and specific chapters are devoted to examples and to applications. Other chapters convey the state of the art in research regarding ontology design patterns. The editors and the contributing authors include the leading contributors to the development of ontology-design-pattern-driven ontology engineering.

How Biology Shapes Philosophy

Author: David Livingstone Smith
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107055830
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A collection of original essays by major thinkers, addressing how the biological sciences inform and inspire philosophical research.

Programming Language Foundations

Author: Aaron Stump
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118007476
Format: PDF, Docs
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Stump’s Programming Language Foundations is a shortconcise text that covers semantics, equally weighting operationaland denotational semantics for several different programmingparadigms: imperative, concurrent, and functional. Programming Language Foundations provides: aneven coverage of denotational, operational an axiomatic semantics;extensions to concurrent and non-deterministic versions;operational semantics for untyped lambda calculus; functionalprogramming; type systems; and coverage of emerging topics andmodern research directions.

Foundations of Probabilistic Logic Programming

Author: Fabrizio Riguzzi
Publisher: River Publishers
ISBN: 8770220182
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Probabilistic Logic Programming extends Logic Programming by enabling the representation of uncertain information. Probabilistic Logic Programming is at the intersection of two wider research fields: the integration of logic and probability and Probabilistic Programming. Logic enables the representation of complex relations among entities while probability theory is useful for model uncertainty over attributes and relations. Combining the two is a very active field of study. Probabilistic Programming extends programming languages with probabilistic primitives that can be used to write complex probabilistic models. Algorithms for the inference and learning tasks are then provided automatically by the system. Probabilistic Logic programming is at the same time a logic language, with its knowledge representation capabilities, and a Turing complete language, with its computation capabilities, thus providing the best of both worlds. Since its birth, the field of Probabilistic Logic Programming has seen a steady increase of activity, with many proposals for languages and algorithms for inference and learning. Foundations of Probabilistic Logic Programming aims at providing an overview of the field with a special emphasis on languages under the Distribution Semantics, one of the most influential approaches. The book presents the main ideas for semantics, inference, and learning and highlights connections between the methods. Many examples of the book include a link to a page of the web application http://cplint.eu where the code can be run online.