Semiconductor Process Reliability in Practice

Author: Zhenghao Gan
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 007175427X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Proven processes for ensuring semiconductor device reliability Co-written by experts in the field, Semiconductor Process Reliability in Practice contains detailed descriptions and analyses of reliability and qualification for semiconductor device manufacturing and discusses the underlying physics and theory. The book covers initial specification definition, test structure design, analysis of test structure data, and final qualification of the process. Real-world examples of test structure designs to qualify front-end-of-line devices and back-end-of-line interconnects are provided in this practical, comprehensive guide. Coverage includes: Basic device physics Process flow for MOS manufacturing Measurements useful for device reliability characterization Hot carrier injection Gate-oxide integrity (GOI) and time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) Negative bias temperature instability Plasma-induced damage Electrostatic discharge protection of integrated circuits Electromigration Stress migration Intermetal dielectric breakdown

Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control

Author: Gary S. May
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471790273
Format: PDF, Docs
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A practical guide to semiconductor manufacturing from process control to yield modeling and experimental design Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control covers all issues involved in manufacturing microelectronic devices and circuits, including fabrication sequences, process control, experimental design, process modeling, yield modeling, and CIM/CAM systems. Readers are introduced to both the theory and practice of all basic manufacturing concepts. Following an overview of manufacturing and technology, the text explores process monitoring methods, including those that focus on product wafers and those that focus on the equipment used to produce wafers. Next, the text sets forth some fundamentals of statistics and yield modeling, which set the foundation for a detailed discussion of how statistical process control is used to analyze quality and improve yields. The discussion of statistical experimental design offers readers a powerful approach for systematically varying controllable process conditions and determining their impact on output parameters that measure quality. The authors introduce process modeling concepts, including several advanced process control topics such as run-by-run, supervisory control, and process and equipment diagnosis. Critical coverage includes the following: * Combines process control and semiconductor manufacturing * Unique treatment of system and software technology and management of overall manufacturing systems * Chapters include case studies, sample problems, and suggested exercises * Instructor support includes electronic copies of the figures and an instructor's manual Graduate-level students and industrial practitioners will benefit from the detailed exami?nation of how electronic materials and supplies are converted into finished integrated circuits and electronic products in a high-volume manufacturing environment. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department. An Instructor Support FTP site is also available.

Reliability Wearout Mechanisms in Advanced CMOS Technologies

Author: Alvin W. Strong
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470455258
Format: PDF, Docs
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A comprehensive treatment of all aspects of CMOS reliability wearout mechanisms This book covers everything students and professionals need to know about CMOS reliability wearout mechanisms, from basic concepts to the tools necessary to conduct reliability tests and analyze the results. It is the first book of its kind to bring together the pertinent physics, equations, and procedures for CMOS technology reliability in one place. Divided into six relatively independent topics, the book covers: Introduction to Reliability Gate Dielectric Reliability Negative Bias Temperature Instability Hot Carrier Injection Electromigration Reliability Stress Voiding Chapters conclude with practical appendices that provide very basic experimental procedures for readers who are conducting reliability experiments for the first time. Reliability Wearout Mechanisms in Advanced CMOS Technologies is ideal for students and new engineers who are looking to gain a working understanding of CMOS technology reliability. It is also suitable as a professional reference for experienced circuit design engineers, device design engineers, and process engineers.

Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology

Author: Yoshio Nishi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824787837
Format: PDF, Docs
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The Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology describes the individual processes and manufacturing control, support, and infrastructure technologies of silicon-based integrated-circuit manufacturing, many of which are also applicable for building devices on other semiconductor substrates. Discussing ion implantation, rapid thermal processing, photomask fabrication, chip testing, and plasma etching, the editors explore current and anticipated equipment, devices, materials, and practices of silicon-based manufacturing. The book includes a foreword by Jack S. Kilby, cowinner of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2000 "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit."

Semiconductor Memories

Author: Ashok K. Sharma
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
ISBN: 9780780310001
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Semiconductor Memories provides in-depth coverage in the areas of design for testing, fault tolerance, failure modes and mechanisms, and screening and qualification methods including. * Memory cell structures and fabrication technologies. * Application-specific memories and architectures. * Memory design, fault modeling and test algorithms, limitations, and trade-offs. * Space environment, radiation hardening process and design techniques, and radiation testing. * Memory stacks and multichip modules for gigabyte storage.

Makers of the Microchip

Author: Christophe Lécuyer
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262294324
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In the first three and a half years of its existence, Fairchild Semiconductor developed, produced, and marketed the device that would become the fundamental building block of the digital world: the microchip. Founded in 1957 by eight former employees of the Schockley Semiconductor Laboratory, Fairchild created the model for a successful Silicon Valley start-up: intense activity with a common goal, close collaboration, and a quick path to the market (Fairchild's first device hit the market just ten months after the company's founding). Fairchild Semiconductor was one of the first companies financed by venture capital, and its success inspired the establishment of venture capital firms in the San Francisco Bay area. These firms would finance the explosive growth of Silicon Valley over the next several decades. This history of the early years of Fairchild Semiconductor examines the technological, business, and social dynamics behind its innovative products. The centerpiece of the book is a collection of documents, reproduced in facsimile, including the company's first prospectus; ideas, sketches, and plans for the company's products; and a notebook kept by cofounder Jay Last that records problems, schedules, and tasks discussed at weekly meetings. A historical overview, interpretive essays, and an introduction to semiconductor technology in the period accompany these primary documents.

Theory and Practice of Quality and Reliability Engineering in Asia Industry

Author: Cher Ming Tan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811032904
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book discusses the application of quality and reliability engineering in Asian industries, and offers information for multinational companies (MNC) looking to transfer some of their operation and manufacturing capabilities to Asia and at the same time maintain high levels of reliability and quality. It is also provides small and medium enterprises (SME) in Asia with insights into producing high-quality and reliable products. It mainly comprises peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the Asian Network for Quality (ANQ) Congress 2014 held in Singapore (August, 2014), which provides a platform for companies, especially those within Asia where rapid changes and growth in manufacturing are taking place, to present their quality and reliability practices. The book presents practical demonstrations of how quality and reliability methodologies can be modified for the unique Asian market, and as such is a valuable resource for students, academics, professionals and practitioners in the field of quality and reliability.

Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and Devices

Author: Milton Ohring
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080575528
Format: PDF
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Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and Devices is a well-established and well-regarded reference work offering unique, single-source coverage of most major topics related to the performance and failure of materials used in electronic devices and electronics packaging. With a focus on statistically predicting failure and product yields, this book can help the design engineer, manufacturing engineer, and quality control engineer all better understand the common mechanisms that lead to electronics materials failures, including dielectric breakdown, hot-electron effects, and radiation damage. This new edition adds cutting-edge knowledge gained both in research labs and on the manufacturing floor, with new sections on plastics and other new packaging materials, new testing procedures, and new coverage of MEMS devices. Covers all major types of electronics materials degradation and their causes, including dielectric breakdown, hot-electron effects, electrostatic discharge, corrosion, and failure of contacts and solder joints New updated sections on "failure physics," on mass transport-induced failure in copper and low-k dielectrics, and on reliability of lead-free/reduced-lead solder connections New chapter on testing procedures, sample handling and sample selection, and experimental design Coverage of new packaging materials, including plastics and composites

Latchup

Author: Steven H. Voldman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470516164
Format: PDF, Docs
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Interest in latchup is being renewed with the evolution of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) scaling, and high-level system-on-chip (SOC) integration. Clear methodologies that grant protection from latchup, with insight into the physics, technology and circuit issues involved, are in increasing demand. This book describes CMOS and BiCMOS semiconductor technology and their sensitivity to present day latchup phenomena, from basic over-voltage and over-current conditions, single event latchup (SEL) and cable discharge events (CDE), to latchup domino phenomena. It contains chapters focusing on bipolar physics, latchup theory, latchup and guard ring characterization structures, characterization testing, product level test systems, product level testing and experimental results. Discussions on state-of-the-art semiconductor processes, design layout, and circuit level and system level latchup solutions are also included, as well as: latchup semiconductor process solutions for both CMOS to BiCMOS, such as shallow trench, deep trench, retrograde wells, connecting implants, sub-collectors, heavily-doped buried layers, and buried grids – from single- to triple-well CMOS; practical latchup design methods, automated and bench-level latchup testing methods and techniques, latchup theory of logarithm resistance space, generalized alpha (a) space, beta (b) space, new latchup design methods– connecting the theoretical to the practical analysis, and; examples of latchup computer aided design (CAD) methodologies, from design rule checking (DRC) and logical-to-physical design, to new latchup CAD methodologies that address latchup for internal and external latchup on a local as well as global design level. Latchup acts as a companion text to the author’s series of books on ESD (electrostatic discharge) protection, serving as an invaluable reference for the professional semiconductor chip and system-level ESD engineer. Semiconductor device, process and circuit designers, and quality, reliability and failure analysis engineers will find it informative on the issues that confront modern CMOS technology. Practitioners in the automotive and aerospace industries will also find it useful. In addition, its academic treatment will appeal to both senior and graduate students with interests in semiconductor process, device physics, computer aided design and design integration.

Handbook of Thin Film Deposition Processes and Techniques

Author: Krishna Seshan
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0815517785
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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New second edition of the popular book on deposition (first edition by Klaus Schruegraf) for engineers, technicians, and plant personnel in the semiconductor and related industries. This book traces the technology behind the spectacular growth in the silicon semiconductor industry and the continued trend in miniaturization over the last 20 years. This growth has been fueled in large part by improved thin film deposition techniques and the development of highly specialized equipment to enable this deposition. The book includes much cutting-edge material. Entirely new chapters on contamination and contamination control describe the basics and the issues—as feature sizes shrink to sub-micron dimensions, cleanliness and particle elimination has to keep pace. A new chapter on metrology explains the growth of sophisticated, automatic tools capable of measuring thickness and spacing of sub-micron dimensions. The book also covers PVD, laser and e-beam assisted deposition, MBE, and ion beam methods to bring together all the physical vapor deposition techniques. Two entirely new areas receive full treatment: chemical mechanical polishing which helps attain the flatness that is required by modern lithography methods, and new materials used for interconnect dielectric materials, specifically organic polyimide materials.