Semiconductor Process Reliability in Practice

Author: Zhenghao Gan
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 007175427X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Proven processes for ensuring semiconductor device reliability Co-written by experts in the field, Semiconductor Process Reliability in Practice contains detailed descriptions and analyses of reliability and qualification for semiconductor device manufacturing and discusses the underlying physics and theory. The book covers initial specification definition, test structure design, analysis of test structure data, and final qualification of the process. Real-world examples of test structure designs to qualify front-end-of-line devices and back-end-of-line interconnects are provided in this practical, comprehensive guide. Coverage includes: Basic device physics Process flow for MOS manufacturing Measurements useful for device reliability characterization Hot carrier injection Gate-oxide integrity (GOI) and time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) Negative bias temperature instability Plasma-induced damage Electrostatic discharge protection of integrated circuits Electromigration Stress migration Intermetal dielectric breakdown

Cleanrooms

Author: Michael Kozicki
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401179506
Format: PDF, ePub
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In writing this book, our goal was to produce a much needed teaching and reference text with a fresh approach to c1eanroom technology. The most obvious technological reason for bringing this book into being is that c1ean rooms have become vital to the manufacture and development of high technology products in both the commercial and military sectors, and there fore people have to develop an understanding of them. Examples of c1ean room applications include the manufacture of integrated circuits and other electronic components, preciSion mechanical assemblies, computer disks and drives, compact disks, optical components, medical implants and prostheses, pharmaceuticals and biochemicals, and so on. The book is written for anyone who is currently involved, or intends to become involved, with c1eanrooms. We intend it to be used by a wide range of professional groups including process engineers, production engineers, plant mechanical and electrical engineers, research engineers and scientists, managers, and so on. In addition, we believe it will be beneficial to those who design, build, service, and supply c1eanrooms, and may be used as a training aid for students who intend to pursue a career involving controlled environments and others such as c1eanroom operators and maintenance staff. We have attempted to steer clear of complex theory, which may be pursued in many other specialist texts, and keep the book as understandable and applicable as possible.

Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices

Author: Osamu Ueda
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461443377
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices provides comprehensive coverage of reliability procedures and approaches for electron and photonic devices. These include lasers and high speed electronics used in cell phones, satellites, data transmission systems and displays. Lifetime predictions for compound semiconductor devices are notoriously inaccurate due to the absence of standard protocols. Manufacturers have relied on extrapolation back to room temperature of accelerated testing at elevated temperature. This technique fails for scaled, high current density devices. Device failure is driven by electric field or current mechanisms or low activation energy processes that are masked by other mechanisms at high temperature. The Handbook addresses reliability engineering for III-V devices, including materials and electrical characterization, reliability testing, and electronic characterization. These are used to develop new simulation technologies for device operation and reliability, which allow accurate prediction of reliability as well as the design specifically for improved reliability. The Handbook emphasizes physical mechanisms rather than an electrical definition of reliability. Accelerated aging is useful only if the failure mechanism is known. The Handbook also focuses on voltage and current acceleration stress mechanisms.

Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology

Author: Yoshio Nishi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824787837
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology describes the individual processes and manufacturing control, support, and infrastructure technologies of silicon-based integrated-circuit manufacturing, many of which are also applicable for building devices on other semiconductor substrates. Discussing ion implantation, rapid thermal processing, photomask fabrication, chip testing, and plasma etching, the editors explore current and anticipated equipment, devices, materials, and practices of silicon-based manufacturing. The book includes a foreword by Jack S. Kilby, cowinner of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2000 "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit."

Semiconductor Lithography

Author: Wayne M. Moreau
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461308852
Format: PDF, Docs
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Semiconductor lithography is one of the key steps in the manufacturing of integrated silicon-based circuits. In fabricating a semiconductor device such as a transistor, a series of hot processes consisting of vacuum film deposition, oxidations, and dopant implantation are all patterned into microscopic circuits by the wet processes of lithography. Lithography, as adopted by the semiconductor industry, is the process of drawing or printing the pattern of an integrated circuit in a resist material. The pattern is formed and overlayed to a previous circuit layer as many as 30 times in the manufacture of logic and memory devices. With the resist pattern acting as a mask, a permanent device structure is formed by subtractive (removal) etching or by additive deposition of metals or insulators. Each process step in lithography uses inorganic or organic materials to physically transform semiconductors of silicon, insulators of oxides, nitrides, and organic polymers, and metals, into useful electronic devices. All forms of electromagnetic radiation are used in the processing. Lithography is a mUltidisciplinary science of materials, processes, and equipment, interacting to produce three-dimensional structures. Many aspects of chemistry, electrical engineering, materials science, and physics are involved. The purpose of this book is to bring together the work of many scientists and engineers over the last 10 years and focus upon the basic resist materials, the lithographic processes, and the fundamental principles behind each lithographic process.

MODERN APPROACHES TO DISCRETE INTEGRATED COMPONENT AND SYSTEM RELIABILITY ENGINEERING

Author: John Jay
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 1514451360
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book covers the, methodology and processes required for a successful new product system, component and device development reliability. This book covers introductory definition of reliability terms and gradually build reliability and develop models from components, systems, software reliability and show case study examples of how these methodologies are used was illustrated. This book is the outgrowth of my over 22 years of professional engineering experience in semiconductor industry and systems. This book unlike any other textbook on the subject, presents the processes of reliability engineering conceptually, and with minute details to encourage understanding and assimilation of the material and to show how the concept of reliability is translated from mathematical probability to full product reliability testing. This book bridges the gaps of reliability introduced by the rapid semiconductor advances, process miniaturization, new package and material advances and attempts to shorten new product development, and manufacturing release cycles.

Design for Reliability

Author: Dana Crowe
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351836080
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Today's marketplace demands product reliability. At the same time, it places ever-increasing demands on products that push the limits of their performance and their functional life, and it does so with the expectation of lower per-unit product costs. To meet these demands, product design now requires a focused, streamlined, concurrent engineering process that will produce a product at the lowest possible cost in the least amount of time. Design for Reliability provides a systematic approach to the design process that is sharply focused on reliability and firmly based on the physics of failure. It imparts an understanding of how, why, and when to use the wide variety of reliability engineering tools available and offers fundamental insight into the total design cycle. Applicable from the idea phase of the product development cycle through product obsolescence, Design for Reliability (DfR) concepts integrated with reliability verification and analytical physics form a coherent stage gate/phase design process that helps ensure that a product will meet customers' reliability objectives. Whether you are a high-volume manufacturer of consumer items or a low volume producer of military commodities, your goal is the same: to bring a product to market using a process focused on designing out or mitigating potential failure modes prior to production release. Readers of Design for Reliability will learn to meet that goal and move beyond solidifying a basic offering to the marketplace to creating a true competitive advantage.

Guidebook for Managing Silicon Chip Reliability

Author: Michael Pecht
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849396243
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Achieving cost-effective performance over time requires an organized, disciplined, and time-phased approach to product design, development, qualification, manufacture, and in-service management. Guidebook for Managing Silicon Chip Reliability examines the principal failure mechanisms associated with modern integrated circuits and describes common practices used to resolve them. This quick reference on semiconductor reliability addresses the key question: How will the understanding of failure mechanisms affect the future? Chapters discuss: failure sites, operational loads, and failure mechanism intrinsic device sensitivities electromigration hot carrier aging time dependent dielectric breakdown mechanical stress induced migration alpha particle sensitivity electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electrical overstress latch-up qualification screening guidelines for designing reliability Guidebook for Managing Silicon Chip Reliability focuses on device failure and causes throughout - providing a thorough framework on how to model the mechanism, test for defects, and avoid and manage damage. It will serve as an exceptional resource for electrical engineers as well as mechanical engineers working in the field of electronic packaging.

Theory and Practice of Quality and Reliability Engineering in Asia Industry

Author: Cher Ming Tan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811032904
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book discusses the application of quality and reliability engineering in Asian industries, and offers information for multinational companies (MNC) looking to transfer some of their operation and manufacturing capabilities to Asia and at the same time maintain high levels of reliability and quality. It is also provides small and medium enterprises (SME) in Asia with insights into producing high-quality and reliable products. It mainly comprises peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the Asian Network for Quality (ANQ) Congress 2014 held in Singapore (August, 2014), which provides a platform for companies, especially those within Asia where rapid changes and growth in manufacturing are taking place, to present their quality and reliability practices. The book presents practical demonstrations of how quality and reliability methodologies can be modified for the unique Asian market, and as such is a valuable resource for students, academics, professionals and practitioners in the field of quality and reliability.

Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and Devices

Author: Milton Ohring
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080575528
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and Devices is a well-established and well-regarded reference work offering unique, single-source coverage of most major topics related to the performance and failure of materials used in electronic devices and electronics packaging. With a focus on statistically predicting failure and product yields, this book can help the design engineer, manufacturing engineer, and quality control engineer all better understand the common mechanisms that lead to electronics materials failures, including dielectric breakdown, hot-electron effects, and radiation damage. This new edition adds cutting-edge knowledge gained both in research labs and on the manufacturing floor, with new sections on plastics and other new packaging materials, new testing procedures, and new coverage of MEMS devices. Covers all major types of electronics materials degradation and their causes, including dielectric breakdown, hot-electron effects, electrostatic discharge, corrosion, and failure of contacts and solder joints New updated sections on "failure physics," on mass transport-induced failure in copper and low-k dielectrics, and on reliability of lead-free/reduced-lead solder connections New chapter on testing procedures, sample handling and sample selection, and experimental design Coverage of new packaging materials, including plastics and composites