Semiconductor Silicon Crystal Technology

Author: Fumio Shimura
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323150489
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Semiconductor Silicon Crystal Technology provides information pertinent to silicon, which is the dominant material in the semiconductor industry. This book discusses the technology of integrated circuits (ICs) in electronic materials manufacturer. Comprised of eight chapters, this book provides an overview of the basic science, silicon materials, IC device fabrication processes, and their interaction for enhancing both the processes and materials. This text then proceeds with a discussion of the atomic structure and bonding mechanisms in order to understand the nature and formation of crystal structures, which are the fundamentals of material science. Other chapters consider the technological crystallography and classify natural crystal morphologies based on observation. The final chapter deals with the interrelationships among silicon material characteristics, circuit design, and IC fabrication in order to ensure the fabrication of very-large-scale-integration/ultra-large-scale-integration circuits. This book is a valuable resource for graduate students, physicists, engineers, materials scientists, and professionals involved in semiconductor industry.

Handbook of Semiconductor Silicon Technology

Author: William C. O'Mara
Publisher: William Andrew
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
This handbook is a comprehensive summary of the science, technology and manufacturing of semiconductor silicon materials. Every known property of silicon is detailed. A complete set of binary phase diagrams is included. Practical aspects such as materials handling, safety, impurity and defect reduction are also discussed in depth. Fundamentals in the areas of silicon precursor compounds, polysilicon, silicon crystal growth, wafer fabrication, epitaxial and CVD deposition are addressed by experts in these fields. Materials properties covered include electrical, optical and mechanical properties, deep level impurities and carrier lifetime, and thermochemistry, as well as specific sections on oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen impurities. The book contains an extensive set of references, tables of materials constants, and silicon properties, and a presentation on the state of the art of materials manufacturing.

Single Crystals of Electronic Materials

Author: Roberto Fornari
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 008102097X
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Single Crystals of Electronic Materials: Growth and Properties is a complete overview of the state-of-the-art growth of bulk semiconductors. It is not only a valuable update on the body of information on crystal growth of well-established electronic materials, such as silicon, III-V, II-VI and IV-VI semiconductors, but also includes chapters on novel semiconductors, such as wide bandgap oxides like ZnO, Ga2, O3, In2, O3, Al2, O3, nitrides (AIN and GaN), and diamond. Each chapter focuses on a specific material, providing a comprehensive overview that includes applications and requirements, thermodynamic properties, schematics of growth methods, and more. Presents the latest research and most comprehensive overview of both standard and novel semiconductors Provides a systematic examination of important electronic materials, including their applications, growth methods, properties, technologies and defect and doping issues Takes a close look at emerging materials, including wide bandgap oxides, nitrides and diamond

Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for VLSI and ULSI

Author: Golla Eranna
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482232812
Format: PDF
Download Now
Silicon, as a single-crystal semiconductor, has sparked a revolution in the field of electronics and touched nearly every field of science and technology. Though available abundantly as silica and in various other forms in nature, silicon is difficult to separate from its chemical compounds because of its reactivity. As a solid, silicon is chemically inert and stable, but growing it as a single crystal creates many technological challenges. Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for VLSI and ULSI is one of the first books to cover the systematic growth of silicon single crystals and the complete evaluation of silicon, from sand to useful wafers for device fabrication. Written for engineers and researchers working in semiconductor fabrication industries, this practical text: Describes different techniques used to grow silicon single crystals Explains how grown single-crystal ingots become a complete silicon wafer for integrated-circuit fabrication Reviews different methods to evaluate silicon wafers to determine suitability for device applications Analyzes silicon wafers in terms of resistivity and impurity concentration mapping Examines the effect of intentional and unintentional impurities Explores the defects found in regular silicon-crystal lattice Discusses silicon wafer preparation for VLSI and ULSI processing Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for VLSI and ULSI is an essential reference for different approaches to the selection of the basic silicon-containing compound, separation of silicon as metallurgical-grade pure silicon, subsequent purification, single-crystal growth, and defects and evaluation of the deviations within the grown crystals.

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Author: Peter Rudolph
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444633065
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries