The International Criminal Court

Author: Andrew Novak
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319158325
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book is about the International Criminal Court (ICC), a new and highly distinctive criminal justice institution with the ability to prosecute the highest-level government officials, including heads of state, even in countries that have not accepted its jurisdiction. The book explores the historical development of international criminal law and the formal legal structure created by the Rome Statute, against the background of the Court’s search for objectivity in a political global environment. The book reviews the operations of the Court in practice and the Court’s position in the power politics of the international system. It discusses and clarifies all stages of an international criminal proceeding from the opening of the investigation to sentencing, reparations, and final appeals in the context of its restorative justice mission. Making appropriate comparisons and contrasts between the international criminal justice system and domestic and national systems, the book fills a gap in international criminal justice study.

The Emerging Practice of the International Criminal Court

Author: Carsten Stahn
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004166556
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The International Criminal Court is at a crossroads. In 1998, the Court was still a fiction. A decade later, it has become operational and faces its first challenges as a judicial institution. This volume examines this transition. It analyses the first jurisprudence and policies of the Court. It provides a systematic survey of the emerging law and practice in four main areas: the relationship of the Court to domestic jurisdictions, prosecutorial policy and practice, the treatment of the Courta (TM)s applicable law and the shaping of its procedure. It revisits major themes, such as jurisdiction, complementarity, cooperation, prosecutorial discretion, modes of liability, pre-trial, trial and appeals procedure and the treatment of victims and witnesses, as well as their criticisms. It also explores some of challenges and potential avenues for future reform.

Sentencing in International Criminal Law

Author: Silvia D'Ascoli
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847316441
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book deals with sentencing in international criminal law, focusing on the approach of the UN ad hoc Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and Rwanda (ICTR). In contrast to sentencing in domestic jurisdictions, and in spite of its growing importance, sentencing law is a part of international criminal law that is still 'under construction' and is unregulated in many aspects. International sentencing law and practice is not yet defined by exact norms and principles and as yet there is no body of international principles concerning the determination of sentence, notwithstanding the huge volume of sentencing research and the extensive modern debate about sentencing principles. Moreover international judges receive very little guidance in sentencing matters: this contributes to inconsistencies and may increase the risk that similar cases will be sentenced in different ways. One purpose of this book is to investigate and evaluate the process of international sentencing, especially as interpreted by the ICTY and the ICTR, and to suggest a more comprehensive and coherent system of guiding principles, which will foster the development of a law of sentencing for international criminal justice. The book discusses the law and jurisprudence of the ad hoc Tribunals, and also presents an empirical analysis of influential factors and other data from ICTY and ICTR sentencing practice, thus offering quantitative support for the doctrinal analysis. This publication is one of the first to be entirely devoted to the process of sentencing in international criminal justice. The book will thus be of great interest to practitioners, academics and students of the subject.

International Criminal Law

Author: M. Cherif Bassiouni
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004165304
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Volume 3 addresses the direct enforcement system, namely international criminal tribunals, how they came about and how they functioned, tracing that history from the end of WWI to the ICC, including the post-WWII experiences. They address the IMT, IMTFE, ICTY, ICTR, the mixed model tribunals and the ICC. It also contains a chapter which addresses some of the problems of the direct enforcement system, namely the general, procedural, evidentiary, and sanctions parts of ICL, which is largely made of what is contained in the statutes of the tribunals mentioned above as well as the jurisprudence of the established tribunals. In addition this volume addresses national experiences with the enforcement of certain international crimes. It is divided into 4 chapters which are titled as: Chapter 1: History of International Investigations and Prosecutions (International Criminal Accountability; International Criminal Justice in Historical Perspective); Chapter 2: International Criminal Tribunals and Mixed Model Tribunals (The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia; The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda; The Making of the International Criminal Court; Mixed Models of International Criminal Justice; Special Court for Sierra Leone; Special Tribunal for Cambodia; East Timor); Chapter 3: National Prosecutions for International Crimes (National Prosecutions for International Crimes; National Prosecutions of International Crimes: A Historical Overview; The French Experience; The Belgian Experience; The Dutch Experience; Indonesia; The U.S. War Crimes Act of 1996; Enforcing ICL Violations with Civil Remedies: The Case of the U.S. Alien Tort Claims Act); Chapter 4: Contemporary Issues in International Criminal Law Doctrine and Practice (Command Responsibility; Joint Criminal Enterprise; The Responsibility of Peacekeepers; The General Part: Judicial Developments; Ne bis in idem; Plea Bargains; Issues Pertaining to the Evidentiary Part of International Criminal Law; Penalties and Sentencing; Penalties: From Leipzig to Arusha; Victimsa (TM) Rights in International Law).

The International Criminal Court

Author: William Driscoll
Publisher: IDEA
ISBN: 9780972054140
Format: PDF, Docs
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Annotation The Nuremberg Trials at the end of World War II established the principle that individual leaders could be held responsible for "crimes against humanity." Although various ad hoc tribunals were held in the last half of the 20th century, it was not until 2002 that a permanent international court was established, under the auspices, of the United Nations. The international Criminal Court has been controversial with many key nations most notably, the United States refusing to ratify the treaty establishing the court. Some critics object to the adoption of a judicial system that seems to supersede national judicial systems; others fear that the court will be used to pursue narrow political ends. This book will comprise three sections: the first will examine the history of the creation of the court; the second will contain articles that outline objections to the court; the third will contain articles defending and promoting the court. The authors include primary sources on both sides of the controversy, with special attention to America's involvement. A glossary of key terms, and the text of the Rome Statute establishing the court will also be included.

Mit zweierlei Ma

Author: Wolfgang Kaleck
Publisher: Verlag Klaus Wagenbach
ISBN: 3803141087
Format: PDF, Docs
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Am 1. Juli 2012 wird der Internationale Strafgerichtshof in Den Haag zehn Jahre alt. Doch die Hoffnungen auf eine universale Strafverfolgung von Menschheitsverbrechen wurden enttäuscht. Die Praxis internationaler und nationaler Gerichte muss deswegen verändert werden. Der Erfolg der Nürnberger Prozesse nährte die Erwartung, in Zukunft alle Regierungen für begangene Verbrechen vor Gericht stellen zu können. Aber der Kalte Krieg verhinderte jahrzehntelang eine Umsetzung dieses Versprechens. Wolfgang Kaleck zeichnet in diesem Buch die schier endlose Serie von ungesühnten Völkerrechtsstraftaten westlicher Machthaber von Algerien über Vietnam bis in die Türkei und Kolumbien nach. Trotz der vielversprechenden Schaffung des Internationalen Strafgerichtshofs und der Tribunale für Ruanda und Jugoslawien gibt es noch viele Gründe für Kritik an den stattfindenden wie an den ausbleibenden Verfahren. Kaleck bemängelt, dass das Völkerstrafrecht überwiegend nur auf besiegte afrikanische Potentaten und Generäle angewandt wird und nicht auf die Verbrechen der Großmächte, insbesondere des Westens. Damit stellt die herrschende selektive Strafverfolgungspraxis das Prinzip universell geltender Menschenrechte generell in Frage.

Pluralism in International Criminal Law

Author: Elies van Sliedregt
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 019100829X
Format: PDF
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Despite the growth in international criminal courts and tribunals, the majority of cases concerning international criminal law are prosecuted at the domestic level. This means that both international and domestic courts have to contend with a plethora of relevant, but often contradictory, judgments by international institutions and by other domestic courts. This book provides a detailed investigation into the impact this pluralism has had on international criminal law and procedure, and examines the key problems which arise from it. The work identifies the various interpretations of the concept of pluralism and discusses how it manifests in a broad range of aspects of international criminal law and practice. These include substantive jurisdiction, the definition of crimes, modes of individual criminal responsibility for international crimes, sentencing, fair trial rights, law of evidence, truth-finding, and challenges faced by both international and domestic courts in gathering, testing and evaluating evidence. Authored by leading practitioners and academics in the field, the book employs pluralism as a methodological tool to advance the debate beyond the classic view of 'legal pluralism' leading to a problematic fragmentation of the international legal order. It argues instead that pluralism is a fundamental and indispensable feature of international criminal law which permeates it on several levels: through multiple legal regimes and enforcement fora, diversified sources and interpretations of concepts, and numerous identities underpinning the law and practice. The book addresses the virtues and dangers of pluralism, reflecting on the need for, and prospects of, harmonization of international criminal law around a common grammar. It ultimately brings together the theories of legal pluralism, the comparative law discourse on legal transplants, harmonization, and convergence, and the international legal debate on fragmentation to show where pluralism and divergence will need to be accepted as regular, and even beneficial, features of international criminal justice.

International Criminal Tribunals

Author: iMinds
Publisher: iMinds Pty Ltd
ISBN: 1921761148
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The concept of prosecuting war criminals is not unique to the modern world. Individuals who breached the "rules of war" were tried in Ancient Greece, and probably earlier. However, those early prosecutions were carried out by national courts, generally by victors against the vanquished, and so could hardly be described as examples of fair and impartial international justice. Underpinning the prosecutions was a notion that, even in war, there are certain rules which must be obeyed. The first notable international attempt to codify these "rules of war" was the Geneva Convention of 1864, followed by the Hague conventions in 1899 and 1907.

The Nuremberg Military Tribunals and the Origins of International Criminal Law

Author: Kevin Jon Heller
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191652865
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book provides the first comprehensive legal analysis of the twelve war crimes trials held in the American zone of occupation between 1946 and 1949, collectively known as the Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMTs). The judgments the NMTs produced have played a critical role in the development of international criminal law, particularly in terms of how courts currently understand war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the crime of aggression. The trials are also of tremendous historical importance, because they provide a far more comprehensive picture of Nazi atrocities than their more famous predecessor, the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (IMT). The IMT focused exclusively on the 'major war criminals'-the Goerings, the Hesses, the Speers. The NMTs, by contrast, prosecuted doctors, lawyers, judges, industrialists, bankers-the private citizens and lower-level functionaries whose willingness to take part in the destruction of millions of innocents manifested what Hannah Arendt famously called 'the banality of evil'. The book is divided into five sections. The first section traces the evolution of the twelve NMT trials. The second section discusses the law, procedure, and rules of evidence applied by the tribunals, with a focus on the important differences between Law No. 10 and the Nuremberg Charter. The third section, the heart of the book, provides a systematic analysis of the tribunals' jurisprudence. It covers Law No. 10's core crimes-crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity-as well as the crimes of conspiracy and membership in a criminal organization. The fourth section then examines the modes of participation and defenses that the tribunals recognized. The final section deals with sentencing, the aftermath of the trials, and their historical legacy.