Shifting Baselines

Author: Jeremy B.C. Jackson
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 161091029X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Shifting Baselines explores the real-world implications of a groundbreaking idea: we must understand the oceans of the past to protect the oceans of the future. In 1995, acclaimed marine biologist Daniel Pauly coined the term "shifting baselines" to describe a phenomenon of lowered expectations, in which each generation regards a progressively poorer natural world as normal. This seminal volume expands on Pauly's work, showing how skewed visions of the past have led to disastrous marine policies and why historical perspective is critical to revitalize fisheries and ecosystems. Edited by marine ecologists Jeremy Jackson and Enric Sala, and historian Karen Alexander, the book brings together knowledge from disparate disciplines to paint a more realistic picture of past fisheries. The authors use case studies on the cod fishery and the connection between sardine and anchovy populations, among others, to explain various methods for studying historic trends and the intricate relationships between species. Subsequent chapters offer recommendations about both specific research methods and effective management. This practical information is framed by inspiring essays by Carl Safina and Randy Olson on a personal experience of shifting baselines and the importance of human stories in describing this phenomenon to a broad public. While each contributor brings a different expertise to bear, all agree on the importance of historical perspective for effective fisheries management. Readers, from students to professionals, will benefit enormously from this informed hindsight.

Der Mensch und das Meer

Author: Callum Roberts
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 3641100062
Format: PDF, ePub
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Der Wandel eines faszinierenden, bedrohten Lebensraums Die Ozeane sind nicht nur der größte Lebensraum der Erde, sondern auch der am wenigsten erforschte. Die unermessliche Vielfalt dieses Ökosystems beginnen wir erst jetzt bis in die letzten Winkel zu begreifen – auch wie wichtig das Meer für unser Leben ist. Im letzten Jahrhundert hat jedoch die Herrschaft des Menschen über die Natur auch die Ozeane erreicht: Wir fischen die Meere leer und füllen sie stattdessen mit Umweltgiften. Tiefseebergbau droht den Lebensraum unzähliger Pflanzen und Tiere bis zur Unkenntlichkeit zu verändern. Die Klimaerwärmung ließ bereits ein Viertel aller Korallen zugrunde gehen. In seinem aufrüttelnden Buch beschreibt der Meeresbiologe und –schützer Callum Roberts den großen Reichtum der Ozeane und ihren Wandel, und er ruft dazu auf, der Zerstörung der Meere endlich Einhalt zu gebieten, denn noch ist es nicht zu spät.

Shifting Baselines in the Chesapeake Bay

Author: Victor S. Kennedy
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421426552
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The concept of "shifting baselines"?changes in historical reference points used in environmental assessments?illuminates a foundational challenge when evaluating the health of ecosystems and seeking to restore degraded wildlife populations. In this important book, Victor S. Kennedy examines the problem of shifting baselines for one of the most productive aquatic resources in the world: the Chesapeake Bay. Kennedy explains that since the 1800s, when the Bay area was celebrated for its aquatic bounty, harvest baselines have shifted downward precipitously. Over the centuries, fishers and hunters, supported by an extensive infrastructure of boats, gear, and processing facilities, overexploited the region’s fish, crustaceans, terrapin, and waterfowl, squandering a profound resource. Beginning with the colonial period and continuing through the twentieth century, Kennedy gathers an unparalleled collection of scientific resources and eyewitness reports by colonists, fishers, managers, scientists, and newspaper reporters to create a comprehensive examination of the Chesapeake’s environmental history. Focusing on the relative productivity and health of its fisheries and wildlife and highlighting key species such as shad, oysters, and blue crab, Shifting Baselines in the Chesapeake Bay helps readers understand the remarkable extent of the Bay’s natural resources in the past so that we can begin to understand what has changed since, and why. Such knowledge can help illustrate the Bay’s potential fertility and stimulate efforts to restore this pivotal maritime system’s ecological health and productivity.

Perspectives on Oceans Past

Author: Kathleen Schwerdtner Máñez
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 940177496X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Marine environmental history analyses the changing relationships between human societies and marine natural resources over time. This is the first book which deals in a systematic way with the theoretical backgrounds of this discipline. Major theories and methods are introduced by leading scholars of the field. The book seeks to encapsulate some of the major novelties of this fascinating new discipline and its contribution to the management, conservation and restoration of marine and coastal ecosystems as well as the cultural heritages of coastal communities in different parts of the world.

Historical Perspectives of Fisheries Exploitation in the Indo Pacific

Author: Joseph Christensen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401787271
Format: PDF, ePub
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The waters of the Indo-Pacific were at the centre of the global expansion of marine capture fisheries in the twentieth century, yet surprisingly little has been written about this subject from a historical perspective. This book, the first major study of the history of fishing in Asia and Oceania, presents the case-studies completed through the History of Marine Animal Populations (HMAP) initiative. It examines the marine environmental history and historical marine ecology of the Indo-Pacific during a period that witnessed the dramatic escalation of industrial fishing in these seas.

Marine Historical Ecology in Conservation

Author: John N. Kittinger
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520959604
Format: PDF, ePub
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This pioneering volume provides a blueprint for managing the challenges of ocean conservation using marine historical ecology—an interdisciplinary area of study that is helping society to gain a more in-depth understanding of past human-environmental interactions in coastal and marine ecosystems and of the ecological and social outcomes associated with these interactions. Developed by groundbreaking practitioners in the field, Marine Historical Ecology in Conservation highlights the innovative ways that historical ecology can be applied to improve conservation and management efforts in the oceans. The book focuses on four key challenges that confront marine conservation: (1) recovering endangered species, (2) conserving fisheries, (3) restoring ecosystems, and (4) engaging the public. Chapters emphasize real-world conservation scenarios appropriate for students, faculty, researchers, and practitioners in marine science, conservation biology, natural resource management, paleoecology, and marine and coastal archaeology. By focusing on success stories and applied solutions, this volume delivers the required up-to-date science and tools needed for restoration and protection of ocean and coastal ecosystems.

Social Ecological Resilience and Law

Author: Ahjond S. Garmestani
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231536356
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Environmental law envisions ecological systems as existing in an equilibrium state, reinforcing a rigid legal framework unable to absorb rapid environmental changes and innovations in sustainability. For the past four decades, "resilience theory," which embraces uncertainty and nonlinear dynamics in complex adaptive systems, has provided a robust, invaluable foundation for sound environmental management. Reforming American law to incorporate this knowledge is the key to sustainability. This volume features top legal and resilience scholars speaking on resilience theory and its legal applications to climate change, biodiversity, national parks, and water law.

Vanishing Fish

Author: Daniel Pauly
Publisher: Greystone Books
ISBN: 9781771643986
Format: PDF, ePub
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From renowned marine biologist Dr. Daniel Pauly, a fascinating analysis of our collapsed global fisheries and a revolutionary vision for their future. The world's fisheries are in crisis. Their catches are declining, and the stocks of key species, such as cod and bluefin tuna, are but a small fraction of their previous abundance, while others have been overfished almost to extinction. The oceans are depleted and the commercial fishing industry increasingly depends on subsidies to remain afloat. In these essays, award-winning biologist Dr. Daniel Pauly offers a thought-provoking look at the state of today's global fisheries--and a radical way to turn it around. Starting with the rapid expansion that followed World War II, he traces the arc of the fishing industry's ensuing demise, offering insights into how and why it has failed. With clear, convincing prose, he draws on decades of research to provide an up-to-date assessment of ocean health and an analysis of the issues that have contributed to the current crisis, including globalization, massive underreporting of catch, and the phenomenon of "shifting baselines," in which, over time, important knowledge is lost about the state of the natural world. Finally, Vanishing Fishprovides practical recommendations for a way forward--a vision of a vibrant future where small-scale fisheries can supply the majority of the world's fish.