Soils in Archaeological Research

Author: Vance T. Holliday
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195348811
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Soils, invaluable indicators of the nature and history of the physical and human landscape, have strongly influenced the cultural record left to archaeologists. Not only are they primary reservoirs for artifacts, they often encase entire sites. And soil-forming processes in themselves are an important component of site formation, influencing which artifacts, features, and environmental indicators (floral, faunal, and geological) will be destroyed and to what extent and which will be preserved and how well. In this book, Holliday will address each of these issues in terms of fundamentals as well as in field case histories from all over the world. The focus will be on principles of soil geomorphology , soil stratigraphy, and soil chemistry and their applications in archaeological research.

Principles of Geoarchaeology

Author: Michael R. Waters
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
ISBN: 9780816517701
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Geoarchaeological studies can significantly enhance interpretations of human prehistory by allowing archaeologists to decipher from sediments and soils the effects of earth processes on the evidence of human activity. While a number of previous books have provided broad geographic and temporal treatments of geoarchaeology, this new volume presents a single author's view intended for North American archaeologists. Waters deals with those aspects of geoarchaeologyÑstratigraphy, site formation processes, and landscape reconstructionÑmost fundamental to archaeology, and he focuses on the late Quaternary of North America, permitting in-depth discussions of the concepts directly applicable to that research. Assuming no prior geologic knowledge on the part of the reader, Waters provides a background in fundamental geological processes and the basic tools of geoarchaeology. He then proceeds to relate specific physical processes, microenvironments, deposits, and landforms associated with riverine, desert, lake, glacial, cave, coastal, and other environments to archaeological site formation, location, and context. This practical volume illustrates the contributions of geoarchaeological investigations and demonstrates the need to make such studies an integral part of archaeological research. The text is enhanced by more than a hundred line drawings and photographs. CONTENTS 1. Research Objectives of Geoarchaeology 2. Geoarchaeological Foundations: The Archaeological Site Matrix: Sediments and Soils / Stratigraphy / The Geoarchaeological Interpretation of Sediments, Soils, and Stratigraphy 3. Alluvial Environments: Streamflow / Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition / Alluvial Environments: Rivers, Arroyos, Terraces, and Fans / Alluvial Landscapes Evolution and the Archaeological Record / Alluvial Landscape Reconstruction 4. Eolian Environments: Sediment Erosion, Transport, and Deposition / Sand Dunes / Loess and Dust / Stone Pavements / Eolian Erosion / Volcanic Ash (Tephra) 5. Springs, Lakes, Rockshelters, and Other Terrestrial Environments: Springs / Lakes / Slopes / Glaciers / Rockshelters and Caves 6. Coastal Environments: Coastal Processes / Late Quaternary Sea Level Changes / Coastal Environments / Coastal Landscape Evolution and the Archaeological Record / Coastal Landscape Reconstruction 7. The Postburial Disturbance af Archaeological Site Contexts: Cryoturbation / Argilliturbation / Graviturbation / Deformation / Other Physical Disturbances / Floralturbation / Faunalturbation 8. Geoarchaeological Research Appendix A: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating the Effects of Fluvial Landscape Evolution on the Archaeological Record Appendix B: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating Site-Specific Synchronic and Diachronic Alluvial Landscape Reconstructions Appendix C: Geoarchaeological Studies Illustrating Regional Synchronic and Diachronic Alluvial Landscape Reconstructions

Earth Sciences and Archaeology

Author: Paul Goldberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461511836
Format: PDF
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This volume brings together contributions from an experienced group of archaeologists and geologists whose common objective is to present thorough and current reviews of the diverse ways in which methods from the earth sciences can contribute to archaeological research. Many areas of research are addressed here, including artifact analysis and sourcing, landscape reconstruction and site formation analysis, soil micromorphology and geophysical exploration of buried sites.

Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths

Author: Georges Stoops
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444635424
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths, Second Edition, provides researchers and students with a tool for interpreting features observed in soil thin sections and through submicroscopic studies. After an introduction and general overview, micromorphological aspects of regoliths (e.g., saprolites, transported materials) are highlighted, followed by a systematic and coherent discussion of the micromorphological expression of various pedogenic processes. The book is written by an international team of experts in the field, using a uniform set of concepts and terminology, making it a valuable interdisciplinary reference work. The following topics are treated: freeze-thaw features, redoximorphic features, calcareous and gypsiferous formations, textural features, spodic and oxic horizons, volcanic materials, organic matter, surface horizons, laterites, surface crusts, salt minerals, biogenic and pedogenic siliceous materials, other authigenic silicates, phosphates, sulphidic and sulphuric materials, and features related to faunal activity. The last chapters address anthropogenic features,archaeological materials and palaeosoils. Updates the first exhaustive publication on interpretation of micromorphological features, with some new chapters and with a larger number of additional references Covers related topics, making micromorphology more attractive and accessible for geomorphologists, archaeologists and quaternary geologists Includes thematic treatment of a range of soil micromorphology fields and broadens its applications Features input from a multi-disciplinary team, ensuring thorough coverage of topics related to soil science, archaeology and geomorphology

Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology

Author: Cristiano Nicosia
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118941055
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Chapter 39 FTIR Microscopy -- 39.1 Principles of the Analytical Method -- 39.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure -- 39.3 Archaeological Applications -- References -- Chapter 40 X-ray Microdiffraction -- 40.1 Fundamentals of X-ray Diffraction -- 40.2 XRD Instrumentation -- 40.3 Output and Analysis -- 40.4 Applications to Archaeological Micromorphology Samples -- 40.5 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 41 Micro XRF -- 41.1 Principles of the Analytical Method -- 41.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure -- 41.3 Archaeological Applications -- 41.4 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 42 Micro-CT Scanning -- 42.1 Principles of the Analytical Method -- 42.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedures -- 42.3 Archaeological Applications -- 42.4 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 43 Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) Techniques -- 43.1 Principles of the Techniques -- 43.2 Sample Preparation and Analysis -- 43.3 Archaeological Applications -- References -- 44 Reflected Light -- 44.1 Principles of the Analytical Method -- 44.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure -- 44.3 Archaeological Applications -- References -- Index -- EULA

Techniques in Archaeological Geology

Author: Ervan Garrison
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540438229
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The archaeological geology of the Quaternary or the geological epoch during which humankind evolved is a scientific endeavor with much to offer in the fields of archaeology and palaeoanthropology. Earth science techniques offer diverse ways of characterizing the elements of past landscapes and archaeological facies. This book is a survey of techniques used in archaeological geology for the study of soils, sediments, rocks and minerals. The techniques presented represent those most commonly used today. They are discussed in detail and examples are provided, in many cases, to demonstrate their usefulness to archaeologists.

SOILS IN ARCHAEOLOGY

Author: Vance T. Holliday
Publisher: Smithsonian
ISBN: 9781560981114
Format: PDF, ePub
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"Focusing on the archaeological applications of soil chemistry and soil geomorphology, the case histories and reviews presented here combine a wide range of academic disciplines, including archaeology, physical geography, Quaternary geology, and pedology. The essays range in topic from the use of soils for reconstructing past landscapes, site settings, and landscape evolution to the dating of surfaces and deposits. The book also covers the use of soil chemistry in determining the presence or absence of human occupation and for detecting agricultural practices. Soils in Archaeology also includes a glossary of selected soil science terms."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology

Author: Paul Goldberg
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118688198
Format: PDF, Docs
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Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology provides an invaluable overview of geoarchaeology and how it can be used effectively in the study of archaeological sites and contexts. Taking a pragmatic and functional approach, this book presents: a fundamental, broad-based perspective of the essentials of modern geoarchaeology in order to demonstrate the breadth of the approaches and the depth of the problems that it can tackle. the rapid advances made in the area in recent years, but also gives the reader a firm grasp of conventional approaches. covers traditional topics with the emphasis on landscapes, as well as anthropogenic site formation processes and their investigation. provides guidelines for the presentation of field and laboratory methods and the reporting of geoarchaeological results. essential reading for archaeology undergraduate and graduate students, practicing archaeologists and geoscientists who need to understand and apply geoarchaeological methodologies. Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at: www.blackwellpublishing.com/goldberg “This is one of the best textbooks that I have read in years. I enjoyed reviewing it, and found it well-written and thorough in its coverage of the traditional earth science aspects of geoarchaeology. The non-traditional aspects were intriguing and equally thorough... I predict that this book will become the textbook of choice for geoarchaeology classes for several years.” Geomorphology 101 (2008) 740–743

Snails

Author: Paul Davies
Publisher:
ISBN: 1782975942
Format: PDF
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The remains of snails in ancient soils and sediments are one of the most important biological indicators of past landscapes, and have attracted study for well over a century. In spite of this, the only English-language textbook was published in 1972 and is long since out of print. Snails provides a comprehensive, up to date reference text on the use of snails as indicators of past environments in Quaternary landscape studies and archaeology. It considers the use of terrestrial and freshwater sub-fossil snail remains as indicators of Late Quaternary (c. last 15,000 years) environmental change and as indicators of past environments and human impacts on the landscape. The volume also demonstrates how an understanding of modern snail ecology can be used to enhance our interpretation of landscape archaeology, and provides a detailed contextual approach to the main types of deposits in which snail remains are found. Davies also puts forward an agenda for future research on the use of snails in archaeological and environmental reconstruction.