Special Economic Zones in Asian Market Economies

Author: Connie Carter
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136901701
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Special Economic Zones (SEZs) have proliferated rapidly during the past decade and are set to multiply in the next – embracing not only Asia and Europe but also Africa and the Americas. This book is the first to examine the Asian experience of SEZs in China, India, Malaysia and the Philippines. SEZs are usually clearly defined geographic areas in which national, provincial or local governments use policy tools (such as tax holidays; improved infrastructure; less onerous or differentiated regulations and incentives other than those generally available in the rest of the country) to attract and promote private - usually foreign - investment from enterprises which commit to create employment and to export their products or services, and generating foreign currency for the host country. SEZs have been especially successful in bringing about economic development in Asia, especially in China. This book examines the origins, nature and status of special economic zones in Asia, together with the current trends connected with them, and the challenges they currently face. Although the World Trade Organisation cast doubts in 1995 on the future of special economic zones as a viable policy tool in the development agenda, special economic zones continue to be used, and favoured, as a way of encouraging foreign investment and economic development, with for example India, trying to emulate China, reincorporating special economic zones into its development policy. This book provides regional case studies of SEZs in Asian market economies to analyse the extent to which these zones serve the changing needs of Asian development.

Special Economic Zones

Author: Thomas Farole
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821387634
Format: PDF, Docs
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For countries as diverse as China and Mauritius, Special Economic Zones (SEZs) have been a powerful tool to attract foreign investment, promote export-oriented growth, and generate employment; for many others, the results have been less than encouraging. While the benefits and limitations of zones will no doubt continue to be debated, what is clear is that policymakers are increasingly attracted to them as an instrument of trade, investment, industrial, and spatial policy. Since the mid 1980s, the number of newly-established zones has grown rapidly in almost all regions, with dramatic growth in developing countries. In parallel with this growth and in the evolving context of global trade and investment, zones are also undergoing significant change in both their form and function, with traditional export processing zones (EPZs) increasingly giving way to larger and more flexible SEZ models. This new context will bring significant opportunities for developing countries to take advantage of SEZs, but will also raise new challenges to their successful design and implementation. This volume aims to contribute to a better understanding of the role and practice of SEZs in developing countries, in order to better equip policymakers in making effective decisions in planning and implementing SEZ programs. It covers some of the emerging issues and challenges in SEZs – including upgrading, regional integration, WTO compliance, innovation, the environment, and gender issues – with practical case examples from SEZ programs in developing countries.

The Future of Asian Trade and Growth

Author: Linda Yueh
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134207581
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book presents a comprehensive analysis of current trends of trade and economic growth in Asia, assessing how they are likely to develop in the future. It examines the evolving patterns of Asian economic development with the emergence of China, including since China’s accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 2001. It is written by experts specialising in economic growth and regional and global trade/investment issues, alongside country specialists who have examined the development path of Asian economies. It discusses the significance of a export-oriented growth strategy on the Asian region, and the likely patterns of intra-regional specialisation given China’s rise. The book examines the degree to which the remarkable growth of China is likely to affect other Asian countries in terms of global market share, and growth prospects. The book explores how the rise of intra-industry trade is affecting patterns of specialisation in the region, and appraises the role of multinational corporations and foreign direct investment. Informed by the latest empirical economic thinking, this book is a rigorous examination of the influence of an emerging economic superpower, and the future for economic growth in Asia. Readers interested in the implications of the rise of China, the effect on the economic development path of the most successful developing nations of our time and the lessons to be heeded from China’s integration with the global economy will find this a thorough yet accessible account of the influence of an emerging economic superpower.

The Political Economy of Special Economic Zones

Author: Lotta Moberg
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1315298945
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Special Economic Zones (SEZs) have become a popular development policy throughout the world over the last half a century. These zones form designated areas where governments offer businesses lower taxes, tariffs, and often lighter regulations. Generally, SEZs aim to attract investments and raise a country’s export and employment rates, but although success stories are often cited, there are numerous failed projects that have instead become burdens for their host countries. This book examines SEZs from a political economy perspective, both to dissect the incentives of governments, zone developers, and exporters, and to uncover both the hidden costs and untapped potential of zone policies. Costs include misallocated resources, the encouragement of rent-seeking, and distraction of policy-makers from more effective reforms. However, the zones also have several unappreciated benefits. They can change the politics of a country, by generating a transition from a system of rent-seeking to one of liberalized open markets. In revealing the hidden promise of SEZs, this book shows how the SEZ model of development can succeed in the future. Applying frameworks from various schools of political economy, this volume places SEZs in the context of their mixed past and promising future. It is essential reading for anyone with an interest in international economics, development economics, and political economy, including practitioners and consultants of SEZ policies.

China and India

Author: Dilip K. Das
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134134924
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The economies of the People’s Republic of China and India are emerging-market economies, which account for more than a third of the global population. These two economies share many similarities in that they are large populous neighbours, who were regarded as abjectly poor countries until the 1980s and both are ancient cultures which has both advantages and disadvantages for economic development. However, their political systems are very different. While India is an open democratic society, China is a closed society run in an authoritarian manner by the Chinese Communist Party. This dissimilarity impacts on the economic decision making process in the two economies. This book is the first to systematically compare and contrast the two economies. It takes an objective and dispassionate view and delves into the constructive and favourable side as well as adverse and unfavourable side of the two economies. Written in a comprehensive and authoritative manner, it covers large areas of the two economies, including trade and financial sectors. It also includes other important relevant facets of the two economies.

State Structure Policy Formation and Economic Development in Southeast Asia

Author: Antoinette R. Raquiza
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136505024
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Why do some small, developing countries industrialize and others don’t? What factors account for different economic performance among states that are vulnerable to external shocks, crony capitalism, and political instability? This book argues that the answer lies in the structuring of state power, specifically the way different sets of governing elites – political leaders and economic technocrats – are embedded in political organisations and state institutions, and the way these elites relate to each other in the economic development policy process. Conducting a comparative historical analysis of Thailand and the Philippines, the book argues that the institutional settings of governing elites influence economic outcomes. In Thailand, political power traditionally connects to state institutions in ways that has limited the impact of political turnovers and global downturns - conducive to long-term industrial activities. In contrast, Philippine state power derives from family networks that merge social and political power, suited to fast-moving, short-term commercial interests. In focusing on this political and institutional story, the author analyses the current development dilemmas of countries, weighed down by historical legacies of unstable regimes, dependency, and social conflict, and how they are likely to develop in the future.

Economic Change in Asia

Author: M. Bruna Zolin
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317286669
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Since the 2008 global economic crisis, East Asian economies have faced a number of macroeconomic issues including China’s new growth model, the middle-income trap in developing East Asian countries, and the growing natural fibre market and its socio-economic implications. This book addresses these key topical issues which East Asian economies are facing today. Written by international experts in the area of Asian economics and business, it presents the most recent macroeconomic outlook in the region and then goes on to analyse a number of business corporations and industry-related cases, focussing on the theme of firms’ strategies. Examining the links between environmental and financial performance, corporate social responsibility and the transfer of environmental management, financial accounting standards, the relationship between corporate sustainability activities and corporate profit, and the different cultural approaches towards business ethics, this book provides both practical strategies and new theoretical insights. As such it will appeal to students, scholars and practitioners interested in Asian business and economics.

Routledge Handbook of Southeast Asian Economics

Author: Ian Coxhead
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317586050
Format: PDF
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The Routledge Handbook of Southeast Asian Economics offers new insights into the rapidly-developing economies of Southeast Asia. Despite widespread initial deprivation, Southeast Asia has achieved and sustained a remarkable rate of growth, in the course of which tens of millions have successfully escaped severe poverty. Though the economies of the region vary in many dimensions, integration into the wider East Asian network of production and trade is a notable common feature, one that continues a centuries-long history of engagement with global trade. A second striking feature is the pace and extent of transformation in the structure of production and in sources of household income in the region, which has undergone remarkably rapid industrialization and urban growth. However, the search for sustained and sustainable growth through and beyond middle-income continues to confront pressing economic and policy challenges. This Handbook offers a timely and comprehensive overview of Southeast Asian economic development. Organized according to the logic of chronological and thematic unity, it is structured in these sections: Growth and development over the long term Food, agriculture and natural resources Trade, investment and industrialization Population, labor, and human capital Poverty and political economy Twenty-first century challenges This original Handbook, written by experts in their fields, is unique in the breadth and depth of its coverage. Its forward-looking perspective renders it relevant both now and in the future. This advanced level reference work will be essential reading for students, researchers and scholars of Asian Studies, Economics and Southeast Asian studies.

Trade Investment and Economic Development in Asia

Author: Debashis Chakraborty
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317207815
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In an era of globalization, trade in goods and cross-border services and capital flows play a key role in determining the economic growth path of countries. Over the last two decades, countries have embarked on several alternate tracks to liberalize and deepen their linkage with the world economy. The growing trade-investment nexus and the emerging developments lead to deeper international production networks, rise in cross-border trade in services and in regional trade agreements and so on. The debate of whether it is possible to empirically validate the potential benefits of this deepening trade-investment linkage is ongoing. The evidence in literature is, however, ambiguous. This book contributes to the literature by looking at Asian economies and at the EU, Maghreb countries and Pacific Island economics. It examines the issues under four broad areas, namely: (1) trade: theoretical and policy issues, (2) factor flows: impact on trade and welfare, (3) impact of trade and factor flows on environment and (4) institutions, international trade and policy issues.

Economic Growth and Employment in Vietnam

Author: David Lim
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317818601
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Vietnam has enjoyed significant economic success since the implementation of its "doi moi" reforms, including rapid growth in GDP, exports and foreign and domestic investment, and a shedding of poorly-performing state-owned enterprises. Despite this, however, the economic situation for many ordinary people in Vietnam is fragile, with income only just above the poverty line, and high unemployment, especially among the young. In addition, inflation is high, and the state-owned sector is still large, much of it still performing badly. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the current economic situation in Vietnam. It outlines the state of the economy, paying special attention to employment, discusses government policies including on trade and integration with the global economy, and concludes by assessing the key challenges facing Vietnam’s economy going forward.