Speculation

Author: Stuart Banner
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190623055
Format: PDF, Mobi
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What is the difference between gambling and speculation? This difficult question has posed a legal problem throughout American history. Many have argued that periodic failures by regulators to differentiate between the two have been the proximate causes of catastrophic economic downturns, including the Great Depression and the 2008 global financial crisis. In Speculation, Stuart Banner provides a sweeping history of how the fine lines separating investment, speculation, and outright gambling have shaped America from the 1790s to the present. Advocates for risky investments have long argued that risk-taking is what defines America. On the other side, critics counter that unregulated speculation results in bubbles that draw in the most ill-informed investors, creating financial chaos. The debate has been a perennial feature of American history. The Panic of 1837, the speculative boom of the roaring twenties, and the real estate bubble of the early 2000s are all emblematic of the difficulty in differentiating sober from reckless speculation. Some, chastened by the most recent crash, argue that we need to prohibit certain risky transactions, but others respond by citing the benefits of loosely governed markets and the dangers of over-regulation. Economic crises have generated deep ambivalence, yet Americans' faith in investment and the stock market has always rebounded quickly after even the most savage downturns. Speculation explores a suite of themes that sit at the heart of American history-the ability of courts and regulators to protect ordinary Americans from the ravages of capitalism; the periodic fallibility of the American economy; and the moral conundrum inherent in profiting from speculation while condemning speculators. Banner's engaging and accessible history is invaluable not only for understanding the fault lines beneath the American economy today, but American identity itself.

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Author: David Coates
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019976431X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Provides students and scholars with a valuable reference source in the field of American Politics. The Companion will equip readers with a deep understanding of the complex interaction between governmental institutions and processes and the wider American economy and society that they govern.

Institutional Learning and Knowledge Transfer Across Epistemic Communities

Author: Elias G. Carayannis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461415510
Format: PDF, Docs
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Over the past several decades, as the pace of globalization has accelerated, operational issues of international coordination have often been overlooked. For example, the global financial crisis that began in 2007 is attributed, in part, to a lack of regulatory oversight. As a result, supranational organizations, such as the G-20, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, have prioritized strengthening of the international financial architecture and providing opportunities for dialogue on national policies, international co-operation, and international financial institutions. Prevailing characteristics of the global economic systems, such as the increasing power of financial institutions, changes in the structure of global production, decline in the authority of nation-states over their national economy, and creation of global institutional setting, e.g., global governance have created the conditions for a naturally evolving process towards enabling national epistemic communities to create institutions that comply with global rules and regulations can control crises. In this context, transfer of technical knowledge from the larger organizations and its global epistemic communities to member communities is becoming a policy tool to “convince” participants in the international system to have similar ideas about which rules will govern their mutual participation. In the realm of finance and banking regulation, the primary focus is on transfer of specialized and procedural knowledge in technical domains (such as accounting procedures, payment systems, and corporate governance principles), thereby promoting institutional learning at national and local levels. In this volume, the authors provide in-depth analysis of initiatives to demonstrate how this type of knowledge generated at the international organization level, is codified into global standards, and disseminated to members, particularly in the developing world, where the legal and regulatory infrastructure is often lacking. They argue that despite the challenges, when a country intends to join the global system, its institutions and economic structures need to move toward the global norms. In so doing, they shed new light on the dynamics of knowledge transfer, financial regulation, economic development, with particular respect to supporting global standards and avoiding future crises.