Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth

Author: Govindhan Dhanaraj
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540747611
Format: PDF, ePub
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Over the years, many successful attempts have been chapters in this part describe the well-known processes made to describe the art and science of crystal growth, such as Czochralski, Kyropoulos, Bridgman, and o- and many review articles, monographs, symposium v- ing zone, and focus speci cally on recent advances in umes, and handbooks have been published to present improving these methodologies such as application of comprehensive reviews of the advances made in this magnetic elds, orientation of the growth axis, intro- eld. These publications are testament to the grow- duction of a pedestal, and shaped growth. They also ing interest in both bulk and thin- lm crystals because cover a wide range of materials from silicon and III–V of their electronic, optical, mechanical, microstructural, compounds to oxides and uorides. and other properties, and their diverse scienti c and The third part, Part C of the book, focuses on - technological applications. Indeed, most modern ad- lution growth. The various aspects of hydrothermal vances in semiconductor and optical devices would growth are discussed in two chapters, while three other not have been possible without the development of chapters present an overview of the nonlinear and laser many elemental, binary, ternary, and other compound crystals, KTP and KDP. The knowledge on the effect of crystals of varying properties and large sizes. The gravity on solution growth is presented through a c- literature devoted to basic understanding of growth parison of growth on Earth versus in a microgravity mechanisms, defect formation, and growth processes environment.

Crystal Growth Technology

Author: K. Byrappa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540003670
Format: PDF
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Crystals are the unacknowledged pillars of modern technology. The modern technological developments depend greatly on the availability of suitable single crystals, whether it is for lasers, semiconductors, magnetic devices, optical devices, superconductors, telecommunication, etc. In spite of great technological advancements in the recent years, we are still in the early stage with respect to the growth of several important crystals such as diamond, silicon carbide, PZT, gallium nitride, and so on. Unless the science of growing these crystals is understood precisely, it is impossible to grow them as large single crystals to be applied in modern industry. This book deals with almost all the modern crystal growth techniques that have been adopted, including appropriate case studies. Since there has been no other book published to cover the subject after the Handbook of Crystal Growth, Eds. DTJ Hurle, published during 1993-1995, this book will fill the existing gap for its readers. The book begins with "Growth Histories of Mineral Crystals" by the most senior expert in this field, Professor Ichiro Sunagawa. The next chapter reviews recent developments in the theory of crystal growth, which is equally important before moving on to actual techniques. After the first two fundamental chapters, the book covers other topics like the recent progress in quartz growth, diamond growth, silicon carbide single crystals, PZT crystals, nonlinear optical crystals, solid state laser crystals, gemstones, high melting oxides like lithium niobates, hydroxyapatite, GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy, superconducting crystals, morphology control, and more. For the first time, the crystal growth modeling has been discussed in detail with reference to PZT and SiC crystals.

Shaped Crystal Growth

Author: V.A. Tatarchenko
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401729883
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The monograph "Shaped Crystal Growth" by V. A. Tatarchenko is the first systematic of the macroscopic crystallization theory. The theory is based on the stable statement growth conception, which means that self-stabilization is present in the system, with growth parameter deviations occurring under the action of external perturbations attenuating with time. The crystallization rate is one of the parameters responsible for crystal defect formation. Steady-state crystal growth means that crystallization rate internal stabilization is present, thus allowing more perfect crystals to grow. Most important is the fact that the crystal shape (an easily observed parameter) is one of the stable-growth characteristics when growing crystals without any contact with the crucible walls. This means that constant-cross-section crystal growth is to a certain extent evidence of crystallization process stability. The principles of the stable crystal growth theory were developed by the author of the monograph in the early 1970s. Due to the efforts over the past 20 years of V. A. Tatarchenko, his disciples (V. A. Borodin, S. K. Brantov, E. A. Brener, G. I. Romanova, G. A. Satunkin et al) and his followers (B. L. Timan, 0. V. Kolotiy et al) the theory has been completed, which is demonstrated by this monograph. The characteristic feature of the theory is its trend towards solving practical problems that occur in the process of crystal growth.

Crystal Growth

Author: C. H. L. Goodman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475748965
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The science and art of crystal growing continue to flourish; even with increasing understanding of the science, "feel" and skill continue to play their vital part, as was so clearly evidenced at the recent Boston International Conference on Crystal Growth. The aim of this volume, the same as that of the first, is to try to improve understanding by providing detailed discussions of crystal growth techniques and problems that arise with them. The published paper in the specialized literature is too limited a vehicle, by convention and by editorial pressure on length, to discuss matters in detail, yet it is in the small details born of experience that vital information can often lie concealed. A major aim of this series, therefore, has been to encourage contributors to describe rather fully what has been achieved in their special fields. The next volume of this series is now well underway and plans for Volume 4 are advanced. If you, the reader, feel that some important aspect of crystal growth is being unjustifiably neglected, perhaps you should consider offering a contribution! And even if you do not wish to do that, please do offer criticism-preferably constructive. I hope that the present volume will prove as useful and interesting to crystal growers as apparently did the first volume of the series; certainly the warm commendations that that volume has elicited were a great encouragement for the present work. Finally it is a pleasure to thank Standard Telecommunication Laboratories for its continuing support.

Fundamentals of Crystal Growth I

Author: Franz E. Rosenberger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642812759
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The intrinsic properties of a solid, i. e. , the properties that result from its specific structure, can be largely modified by crystallographic and chem ical defects. The formation of these defects is governed by the heat and mass transfer conditions which prevail on and near a crystal-nutrient in terface during crystallization. Hence, both the growth of highly perfect crystals and the preparation of samples having predetermined defect-induced (extrinsic) properties require a thorough understanding of the reaction and transport mechanisms that govern crystallization from vapors, solutions and melts. Crystal growth, as a science, is therefore mostly concerned with the chemistry and physics of heat and mass transport in these fluid-solid phase transitions. Solid-solid transitions are, at this time, not widely employed for high quality single-crystal production. Transport concepts are largely built upon equilibrium considerations, i. e. , on thermodynamic and phase equilibrium concepts. Hence to supply a "workable" foundation for the succeeding discussions, this text begins in Chapter 2 with a concise treatment of thermodynamics which emphasizes applications to mate rials preparation. After working through this chapter, the reader should feel at ease with often (particularly among physicists) unfamiliar entities such as chemical potentials, fugacities, activities. etc. Special sections on ther mochemical calculations (and their pitfalls) and compilations of thermochemi cal data conclude the second chapter. Crystal growth can be called. in a wide sense, the science and technology of controlling phase transitions that lead to (single crystalline) solids.

Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials

Author: Safa Kasap
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331948933X
Format: PDF, Docs
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The second, updated edition of this essential reference book provides a wealth of detail on a wide range of electronic and photonic materials, starting from fundamentals and building up to advanced topics and applications. Its extensive coverage, with clear illustrations and applications, carefully selected chapter sequencing and logical flow, makes it very different from other electronic materials handbooks. It has been written by professionals in the field and instructors who teach the subject at a university or in corporate laboratories. The Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials, second edition, includes practical applications used as examples, details of experimental techniques, useful tables that summarize equations, and, most importantly, properties of various materials, as well as an extensive glossary. Along with significant updates to the content and the references, the second edition includes a number of new chapters such as those covering novel materials and selected applications. This handbook is a valuable resource for graduate students, researchers and practicing professionals working in the area of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic materials.

Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals

Author: Valentin G. Dmitriev
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662138301
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Since the invention of the first laser 30 years ago, the frequency conversion of laser radiation in nonlinear optical crystals has become an important technique widely used in quantum electronies and laser physies for solving various scientific and engineering problems. The fundamental physics of three-wave light interactions in nonlinear optical crystals is now largely understood. This has enabled the production of the various harmonie generators, sum and difference frequency generators, and parametrie oscillators based on nonlinear crystals that are now commercially available. At the same time, scientists continue an active search for novel high-efficiency optical materials. Therefore, in our opinion, there is a great need for a handbook of nonlinear optical crystals, intended for specialists and practitioners with an engineering background. This book contains a complete description of the properties and applications of all nonlinear crystals reported in the literature up to the beginning of 1990. In addition, it contains the most important equations for calculating the main parameters (such as phase-matching direction, effective nonlinearity, and conversion efficiency) of nonlinear frequency converters. Dolgoprudnyi, Yerevan, V. G. Dmitriev Troitzk, USSR G. G. Gurzadyan D. N. Nikogosyan October 1990 Contents List of Abbreviations. XIII 1. Introduction . . . . 2. Optics of Nonlinear Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1 Three-Wave (Three-Frequency) Interactions . 3 2.2 Phase-Matching Conditions . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3 Optics of Uni axial Crystals .......... . 6 2.4 Types of Phase Matching in Uniaxial Crystals ...... . 10 2.5 Calculation of Phase-Matching Angles in Uniaxial Crystals ..

Handbook of Materials Modeling

Author: Sidney Yip
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402032862
Format: PDF, Docs
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The first reference of its kind in the rapidly emerging field of computational approachs to materials research, this is a compendium of perspective-providing and topical articles written to inform students and non-specialists of the current status and capabilities of modelling and simulation. From the standpoint of methodology, the development follows a multiscale approach with emphasis on electronic-structure, atomistic, and mesoscale methods, as well as mathematical analysis and rate processes. Basic models are treated across traditional disciplines, not only in the discussion of methods but also in chapters on crystal defects, microstructure, fluids, polymers and soft matter. Written by authors who are actively participating in the current development, this collection of 150 articles has the breadth and depth to be a major contributor toward defining the field of computational materials. In addition, there are 40 commentaries by highly respected researchers, presenting various views that should interest the future generations of the community. Subject Editors: Martin Bazant, MIT; Bruce Boghosian, Tufts University; Richard Catlow, Royal Institution; Long-Qing Chen, Pennsylvania State University; William Curtin, Brown University; Tomas Diaz de la Rubia, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Nicolas Hadjiconstantinou, MIT; Mark F. Horstemeyer, Mississippi State University; Efthimios Kaxiras, Harvard University; L. Mahadevan, Harvard University; Dimitrios Maroudas, University of Massachusetts; Nicola Marzari, MIT; Horia Metiu, University of California Santa Barbara; Gregory C. Rutledge, MIT; David J. Srolovitz, Princeton University; Bernhardt L. Trout, MIT; Dieter Wolf, Argonne National Laboratory.

Springer Handbook of Nanomaterials

Author: Robert Vajtai
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364220595X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Springer Handbook of Nanomaterials covers the description of materials which have dimension on the "nanoscale". The description of the nanomaterials in this Handbook follows the thorough but concise explanation of the synergy of structure, properties, processing and applications of the given material. The Handbook mainly describes materials in their solid phase; exceptions might be e.g. small sized liquid aerosols or gas bubbles in liquids. The materials are organized by their dimensionality. Zero dimensional structures collect clusters, nanoparticles and quantum dots, one dimensional are nanowires and nanotubes, while two dimensional are represented by thin films and surfaces. The chapters in these larger topics are written on a specific materials and dimensionality combination, e.g. ceramic nanowires. Chapters are authored by well-established and well-known scientists of the particular field. They have measurable part of publications and an important role in establishing new knowledge of the particular field.