State Responses to International Law

Author: Kendall Stiles
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317652959
Format: PDF, ePub
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Do countries keep their promises to the international community? When they sign treaties or learn about new expectations, do they take them seriously and implement them? Since we already know intuitively that not all countries do, the next question – and the topic of this book – is: who complies? By considering a wide range of different rules – each precise enough to allow one to measure state compliance – and a variety of methods, we hope to answer this question once and for all. Including a systematic analysis of 8 different countries selected for the variety of regime type, international engagement and economic development they represent, the work caps a five-year research program and represents the culmination of twenty years’ worth of work in the disciplines of international relations and international law on legalization and compliance. Stiles highlights the importance of systematic study of compliance in order to move further towards solving truly global issues, such as terrorism, human trafficking, air pollution and collective goods provision. With international laws generally designed to improve the human condition and current levels of compliance inconsistent at best, it is vital to gain a better understanding of who complies and why. This detailed study will be of interest to students of Politics, International Law and International Relations.

Apology and Reconciliation in International Relations

Author: Christopher Daase
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317589483
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book looks into the role and effects of public apologies in international relations. It focuses on two major questions - why and when do states issue apologies for historic crimes and how and under what conditions are these apologies successful in remedying conflictive relationships? In recent years, we have witnessed an unseen popularity of apologies, with numerous politicians, managers and clergymen being eager to apologise and atone for the wrong-doings of their countries or institutions. Public apologies, thus, are a new and highly interesting, while nevertheless still puzzling phenomenon, the precise role and meaning of which in international politics remains to be explored. This book sets out to do exactly this. Focusing in particular on state apologies, it assembles twelve detailed empirical case studies which deal with the two questions raised above. In the first part, the case studies reconstruct the processes in which state representatives react to calls for public atonement, and in the second part the case studies explore the reactions to the apology and evaluate signs for its success or failure. All case studies are based on a theoretical framework which is outlined in the introduction to the book and helps develop tentative assumptions about the emergence and the effects of state apologies, drawing on different strands of literature, such as political science, philosophy, sociology or psychology. This work will be of great interest to students and scholars of conflict reconciliation, international relations and transitional justice.

Western Muslims and Conflicts Abroad

Author: Juris Pupcenoks
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317426312
Format: PDF
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This book explains why reactive conflict spillovers (political violence in response to conflicts abroad) occur in some migrant-background communities in the West. Based on survey data, statistical datasets, more than sixty interviews with Muslim community leaders and activists, ethnographic research in London and Detroit, and open-source data, this book develops a theoretical explanation for how both differences in government policies and features of migrant-background communities interact to influence the nature of foreign-policy focused activism in migrant communities. Utilizing rigorous, mixed-methods case study analysis, the author comparatively analyses the reactions of the Pakistani community in London and the Arab Muslim community in Detroit to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq during the decade following 9/11. Both communities are politically mobilized and active. However, while London has experienced reactive conflict spillover, Detroit has remained largely peaceful. The key findings show that, with regards to activism in response to foreign policy events, Western Muslim communities primarily politically mobilize on the basis of their ethnic divisions. Nevertheless, one notable exception is the Arab-Israeli conflict, which is viewed through the Islamic lenses; and the common Islamic identity is important in driving mobilization domestically in response to Islamophobia, and counterterrorism policies and practices perceived to be discriminatory. Certain organizational arrangements involving minority community leaders, law enforcement, and government officials help to effectively contain excitable youth who may otherwise engage in deviant behavior. Overall, the following factors contribute to the creation of an environment where reactive conflict spillover is more likely to occur: policies allowing immigration of violent radicals, poor economic integration without extensive civil society inter-group ties, the presence of radical groups, and connections with radical networks abroad.

Reinventing Regional Security Institutions in Asia and Africa

Author: Kei Koga
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317229533
Format: PDF, Docs
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Regional security institutions play a significant role in shaping the behavior of existing and rising regional powers by nurturing security norms and rules, monitoring state activities, and sometimes imposing sanctions, thereby formulating the configuration of regional security dynamics. Yet, their security roles and influence do not remain constant. Their raison d’etre, objectives, and functions experience sporadic changes, and some institutions upgrade military functions for peacekeeping operations, while others limit their functions to political and security dialogues. The question is: why and how do these variances in institutional change emerge? This book explores the mechanisms of institutional change, focusing on regional security institutions led by non-great powers. It constructs a theoretical model for institutional change that provides a new understanding of their changing roles in regional security, which has yet to be fully explored in the International Relations field. In so doing, the book illuminates why, when, and how each organization restructures its role, function, and influence. Using case studies of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and the Organization of African Unity (OAU)/ African Union (AU), it also sheds light on similarities and differences in institutional change between regional security institutions.

Introducing International Relations

Author: Paul Sharp
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 135158197X
Format: PDF, Docs
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This exciting new textbook provides an accessible and lively introduction to international relations for students encountering the subject for the first time. Presenting complex ideas, concepts and arguments in a straightforward and conversational way, the textbook explains international relations from a diplomatic perspective, emphasizing co-existence in the absence of agreement, and developing students’ ability to make sense of the current conditions of international uncertainty. Introducing students to the major theories and issues in international relations, each chapter: is written to a common structure, dividing each topic into sections with learning objectives within each section to provide points of focus for students and instructors includes extensive text box examples and short case studies for reflection and discussion provides key terms, key takeaways and simple exercises which require short responses offers a suggested list of further readings for those who wish to explore a topic further. The first introductory textbook to take a diplomatic approach, this text is essential reading for all those looking to take their first steps into the study of international relations in an era of uncertainty.

Russia s Relations with Kazakhstan

Author: Yelena Nikolayevna Zabortseva
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317361962
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Recent political developments in post-Soviet countries have raised novel issues regarding the stability of the post-Cold War world order. A new direction in policy has been exemplified by the recent bolstering of a number of post-Soviet political and economic institutions - such as CSTO, SCO and the Eurasian Economic Union - in which the role of Kazakhstan is considerable. In addition to its unique geopolitical location, Kazakhstan’s importance in regional integration structures and international relations more broadly is reinforced by its rich oil and uranium deposits. This book centres on an exploration of the changing relations between Russia and Kazakhstan and their impact on post-Soviet interactions with the rest of the world. The role of specific factors in the formation of the post-Soviet regional system will be explored in historical perspective. The multifaceted relations between Kazakhstan and Russia from 1991 to the contemporary period will be analysed in terms of relations in several spheres: political, military and security, Kazakhstan’s nuclear withdrawal, ethnicity and national identity, economic, foreign policies, regionalism and international trends and the impact of historic trends. An important analysis of Kazakhstan, the second largest country in the post-Soviet world, this book is of interest to researchers of International Relations, Post-Soviet Studies and Central Asia Studies.

Posthuman International Relations

Author: Doctor Erika Cudworth
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 1780322216
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In this bold intervention, Cudworth and Hobden draw on recent advances in thinking about complexity theory to call for a profound re-envisioning of the study of international relations. As a discipline, IR is wedded to the enlightenment project of overcoming the 'hazards' of nature, and thus remains constrained by its blinkered 'human-centred' approach. Furthermore, as a means of predicting major global-political events and trends, it has failed consistently. Instead, the authors argue, it is essential we develop a much more nuanced and sophisticated analysis of global political systems, taking into account broader environmental circumstances, as well as social relations, economic practices and formations of political power. Essentially, the book reveals how the study of international politics is transformed by the understanding that we have never been exclusively human. An original work that is sure to provoke heated debate within the discipline, Posthuman International Relations combines insights from complexity theory and ecological thinking to provide a radical new agenda for a progressive, twenty-first century, International Relations.

Global Politics and the Responsibility to Protect

Author: Alex J. Bellamy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113686864X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book provides an in-depth introduction to, and analysis of, the issues relating to the implementation of the recent Responsibility to Protect principle in international relations The Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) has come a long way in a short space of time. It was endorsed by the General Assembly of the UN in 2005, and unanimously reaffirmed by the Security Council in 2006 (Resolution 1674) and 2009 (Resolution 1894). UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has identified the challenge of implementing RtoP as one of the cornerstones of his Secretary-Generalship. The principle has also become part of the working language of international engagement with humanitarian crises and has been debated in relation to almost every recent international crisis – including Sudan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Georgia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Darfur and Somalia. Concentrating mainly on implementation challenges including the prevention of genocide and mass atrocities, strengthening the UN’s capacity to respond, and the role of regional organizations, this book introducing readers to contemporary debates on R2P and provides the first book-length analysis of the implementation agenda. The book will be of great interest to students of the responsibility to protect, humanitarian intervention, human rights, foreign policy, security studies and IR and politics in general.

Small States and Hegemonic Competition in Southeast Asia

Author: Chih-Mao Tang
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317204840
Format: PDF, ePub
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In the last few decades, Southeast Asia has become generally more peaceful and more prosperous, with progress in economic development, regional cooperation and integration. ASEAN in particular plays a leading role within and beyond the region in promoting multilateral cooperation in both security and economic matters. All these developments progress amid increasing hegemonic competition between the US and China for regional dominance in the Asia-Pacific region. According to the realist viewpoint of international politics, Southeast Asian states can do nothing but choose sides at the expense of international political autonomy in order to maintain their national interests. Tang argues, however, that in fact there exists an opportunity for Southeast Asian states to simultaneously reinforce their military security, economic development and international political autonomy in face of the US-China hegemonic competition. Drawing on the ideas of power transition theory and recent works of capitalist peace, Tang argues that small states can exploit the competition between great powers to make economic gains and ensure security while maintaining their autonomy. He outlines the necessity of cooperation among these small states and of economic liberalization for the effectiveness of this reinforcing dynamics, applying policy and econometric analyses to a wide range of qualitative and quantitative data.

The Politics of Self determination

Author: Kristina Roepstorff
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415520649
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Since the formation of the UN in 1945 the international community has witnessed a number of violent self-determination conflicts such as the disintegration of Yugoslavia, Chechnya, Kashmir, and South Sudan that have been a major cause of humanitarian crises and destruction. This book examines the scope and applicability of political self-determination beyond the decolonisation process. Explaining the historical evolution of self-determination, this book provides a theoretical examination of the concept and background. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, the author analyses self-determination in relation to contemporary conflicts, which inform and drive a coherent theoretical framework for international responses to claims for self-determination. Built upon an examination of the conceptual foundations of self-determination, this book presents a new understanding and application of self-determination. It addresses the important question of whether self-determination claims legitimate armed violence, either by the self-determining group’s right to rebel, or by the international community in the form of humanitarian intervention. The Politics of Self-Determinationwill be of interest to students and scholars of political science, international relations, security studies and conflict studies.