Statistical Deception at Work

Author: John Mauro
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136695044
Format: PDF
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Written to reveal statistical deceptions often thrust upon unsuspecting journalists, this book views the use of numbers from a public perspective. Illustrating how the statistical naivete of journalists often nourishes quantitative misinformation, the author's intent is to make journalists more critical appraisers of numerical data so that in reporting them they do not deceive the public. The book frequently uses actual reported examples of misused statistical data reported by mass media and describes how journalists can avoid being taken in by them. Because reports of survey findings seldom give sufficient detail of methods on the actual questions asked, this book elaborates on questions reporters should ask about methodology and how to detect biased questions before reporting the findings to the public. As such, it may be looked upon as an "elements of style" for reporting statistics.

Introduction to Real World Statistics

Author: Edward T. Vieira, Jr.
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1351869817
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Introduction to Real World Statistics provides students with the basic concepts and practices of applied statistics, including data management and preparation; an introduction to the concept of probability; data screening and descriptive statistics; various inferential analysis techniques; and a series of exercises that are designed to integrate core statistical concepts. The author’s systematic approach, which assumes no prior knowledge of the subject, equips student practitioners with a fundamental understanding of applied statistics that can be deployed across a wide variety of disciplines and professions. Notable features include: short, digestible chapters that build and integrate statistical skills with real-world applications, demonstrating the flexible usage of statistics for evidence-based decision-making statistical procedures presented in a practical context with less emphasis on technical jargon early chapters that build a foundation before presenting statistical procedures SPSS step-by-step detailed instructions designed to reinforce student understanding real world exercises complete with answers chapter PowerPoints and test banks for instructors.

Method in Translation History

Author: Anthony Pym
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317640985
Format: PDF, ePub
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Starting from the critical notion that we should be asking questions of contemporary importance - and that 'importance' itself must be defined - Anthony Pym sets about undoing many of the currently dominant models of translation history, positing, among much else, that the object of this history should be translators as people, that researchers are subjectively involved in their object, that cultural systems are based on social will, that translators work in intercultural spaces, and that a model of cooperation through negotiation may be applied to the way translators (and researchers!) work between cultures. At the same time, the proposed methodology is eminently constructive, showing how many empirical techniques can be developed and applied: clear illustrations are given of corpus selection, working definitions, deceptive statistics, and the construction of networks and regimes, incorporating elaborate examples drawn from medieval and modernist fields, as well as finding space for notes on practical problems like funding research. Finding its focus in historical debates, this book cannot help but create contemporary debate: its arguments seek not only to revitalize the historical study of translation but also to develop the wider concerns of intercultural studies.

Single Case Methods in Clinical Psychology

Author: Stephen Morley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315412918
Format: PDF, ePub
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Single-Case Methods in Clinical Psychology: A Practical Guide provides a concise and easily-accessible introduction to single-case research. This is a timely response to the increasing awareness of the need to look beyond randomised controlled trials for evidence to support best practice in applied psychology. The book covers the issues of design, the reliability and validity of measurement, and provides guidance on how to analyse single-case data using both visual and statistical methods. Single-case designs can be used to investigate an individual’s response to psychological intervention, as well as to contribute to larger scale research projects. This book illuminates the common principles behind these uses. It describes how standardised measures can be used to evaluate change in an individual and how to develop idiographic measures that are tailored to the needs of an individual. The issue of replication and generalising beyond an individual are examined, and the book also includes a section on the meta-analysis of single-case data. The critical evaluation of single-case research is examined, from both the perspective of developing quality standards to evaluate research and maintaining a critical distance in reviewing one’s own work. Single Case Methods in Clinical Psychology will provide invaluable guidance to postgraduate psychologists training to enter the professions of clinical, health and counselling psychology and is likely to become a core text on many courses. It will also appeal to clinicians seeking to answer questions about the effectiveness of therapy in individual cases and who wish to use the method to further the evidence-base for specific psychological interventions.

Sex Differences and Similarities in Communication

Author: Daniel J. Canary
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135216800
Format: PDF
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Sex Differences and Similarities in Communication offers a thorough exploration of sex differences in how men and women communicate, set within the context of sex similarities, offering a balanced examination of the topic. The contents of this distinctive volume frame the conversation regarding the extent to which sex differences are found in social behavior, and emphasize different theoretical perspectives on the topic. Chapter contributors examine how sex differences and similarities can be seen in various verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors across contexts, and focus on communication behavior in romantic relationships. The work included here represents recent research on the topic across various disciplines, including communication, social psychology, sociology, linguistics, and organizational behavior, by scholars well-known for their work in this area. In this second edition, some chapters present new perspectives on sex/gender and communication; others present substantially revised versions of earlier chapters. All chapters have a stronger theoretical orientation and are based on a wider range of empirical data than those in the first edition. Readers in communication, social psychology, relationships, and related fields will find much of interest in this second edition. The volume will serve as a text for students in advanced coursework as well as a reference for practitioners interested in research-based conclusions regarding sex differences in communicative behavior.

Ethics and Experiments

Author: Scott Desposato
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317438663
Format: PDF, Docs
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For most of political science's history, discussions about professional ethics had nothing to do with human subjects. Professional ethics involved integrity in the classroom, fair tenure and promotion rule, and the careful avoidance of plagiarism. As most research was observational, there was little need for attention to how scholarly activities might directly affect the subjects of our work. Times have changed. The dramatic growth in the use of experiments in social science, especially overseas, is generating unexpected ethical controversies. The purpose of this volume is to identify, debate, and propose practical solutions to the most critical of these new ethical issues. A leading team of internationally distinguished political science scholars presents the first examination of the practical and ethical challenges of research with human subjects in social science and policy studies. Part 1 examines contextual challenges provided by experiments conducted overseas - questions of culture, religion, security, and poverty. Part 2 examines questions of legal constraints on research, focusing on questions of foreign review of international experiments. Part 3 tackles the critical issues in field experiments, including deception and consent, impact on elections and careers, the boundaries of the public officials' exemption, and the use of partner organizations to avoid Institutional Review Body (IRB) review. Part 4 considers strategies for the future, including training and education, IRB reform, institutional changes, and norm development.

Professional News Reporting

Author: Bruce Garrison
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136690972
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Because reporting is changing, this volume offers readers a thorough introduction to the rapidly evolving world of gathering information for local news organizations. This easy-to-read text is filled with contemporary examples and solid advice for the beginning reporting student. Designed for students with a foundation in news writing, it provides chapters on such basics as news research, interviewing, and observation skills. It further offers a chapter on the use of personal computers as research and reporting tools. Readers will find useful tips and examples written by award-winning professional journalists that reflect the numerous changes in the art and science of information gathering in the past decade.

Applying the Rasch Model

Author: Trevor Bond
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317805267
Format: PDF, Docs
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Cited over 1900 times, this classic text facilitates a deep understanding of the Rasch model. The authors review the crucial properties of the model and demonstrate its use with a variety of examples from education, psychology, and health. A glossary and numerous illustrations aid the reader's understanding. Readers learn how to apply Rasch analysis so they can perform their own analyses and interpret the results. The authors present an accessible overview that does not require a mathematical background. Highlights of the new edition include: -More learning tools to strengthen readers’ understanding including chapter introductions, boldfaced key terms, chapter summaries, activities, and suggested readings. -Divided chapters (4, 6, 7 & 8) into basic and extended understanding sections so readers can select the level most appropriate for their needs and to provide more in-depth investigations of key topics. -A website at www.routledge.com/9780415833424 that features free Rasch software, data sets, an Invariance worksheet, detailed instructions for key analyses, and links to related sources. -Greater emphasis on the role of Rasch measurement as a priori in the construction of scales and its use post hoc to reveal the extent to which interval scale measurement is instantiated in existing data sets. -Emphasizes the importance of interval level measurement data and demonstrates how Rasch measurement is used to examine measurement invariance. -Insights from other Rasch scholars via innovative applications (Ch. 9). -Extended discussion of invariance now reviews DIF, DPF, and anchoring (ch. 5). -Revised Rating Scale Model material now based on the analysis of the CEAQ (ch.6). -Clarifies the relationships between Rasch measurement, True Score Theory, and Item Response Theory by reviewing their commonalities and differences (Ch.13). -Provides more detail on how to conduct a Rasch analysis so readers can use the techniques on their own (Appendix B). Intended as a text for graduate courses in measurement, item response theory, (advanced) research methods or quantitative analysis taught in psychology, education, human development, business, and other social and health sciences, professionals in these areas also appreciate the book‘s accessible introduction.

Age of Propaganda

Author: Anthony R. Pratkanis
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 9780805074031
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Examines the patterns, motives, and effects of mass persuasion, discussing the history of propaganda, how the message of propaganda is delivered, and counteracting the tactics of mass persuasion.

Principles of Research in Behavioral Science

Author: Mary E. Kite
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315450062
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of research methods in the behavioral sciences, focusing primarily on the conceptual issues inherent in conducting research. It covers topics that are often omitted from other texts, including measurement issues, correlational research, qualitative research, and integrative literature reviews. The book also includes discussions of diversity issues as they related to behavioral science research. New to this edition are chapter boxes that focus on applied issues related to each chapter topic. Throughout the book, readable examples and informative tables and figures are provided. The authors also take a contemporary approach to topics such as research ethics, replication research, and data collection (including internet research).