Stochastic Foundations in Movement Ecology

Author: Vicenç Méndez
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642390102
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
This book presents the fundamental theory for non-standard diffusion problems in movement ecology. Lévy processes and anomalous diffusion have shown to be both powerful and useful tools for qualitatively and quantitatively describing a wide variety of spatial population ecological phenomena and dynamics, such as invasion fronts and search strategies. Adopting a self-contained, textbook-style approach, the authors provide the elements of statistical physics and stochastic processes on which the modeling of movement ecology is based and systematically introduce the physical characterization of ecological processes at the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic levels. The explicit definition of these levels and their interrelations is particularly suitable to coping with the broad spectrum of space and time scales involved in bio-ecological problems. Including numerous exercises (with solutions), this text is aimed at graduate students and newcomers in this field at the interface of theoretical ecology, mathematical biology and physics.

Attracted to Conflict Dynamic Foundations of Destructive Social Relations

Author: Robin R. Vallacher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642352804
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Conflict is inherent in virtually every aspect of human relations, from sport to parliamentary democracy, from fashion in the arts to paradigmatic challenges in the sciences, and from economic activity to intimate relationships. Yet, it can become among the most serious social problems humans face when it loses its constructive features and becomes protracted over time with no obvious means of resolution. This book addresses the subject of intractable social conflict from a new vantage point. Here, these types of conflict represent self-organizing phenomena, emerging quite naturally from the ongoing dynamics in human interaction at any scale—from the interpersonal to the international. Using the universal language and computational framework of nonlinear dynamical systems theory in combination with recent insights from social psychology, intractable conflict is understood as a system locked in special attractor states that constrain the thoughts and actions of the parties to the conflict. The emergence and maintenance of attractors for conflict can be described by means of formal models that incorporate the results of computer simulations, experiments, field research, and archival analyses. Multi-disciplinary research reflecting these approaches provides encouraging support for the dynamical systems perspective. Importantly, this text presents new views on conflict resolution. In contrast to traditional approaches that tend to focus on basic, short-lived cause-effect relations, the dynamical perspective emphasizes the temporal patterns and potential for emergence in destructive relations. Attractor deconstruction entails restoring complexity to a conflict scenario by isolating elements or changing the feedback loops among them. The creation of a latent attractor trades on the tendency toward multi-stability in dynamical systems and entails the consolidation of incongruent (positive) elements into a coherent structure. In the bifurcation scenario, factors are identified that can change the number and types of attractors in a conflict scenario. The implementation of these strategies may hold the key to unlocking intractable conflict, creating the potential for constructive social relations.

Complexity in Landscape Ecology

Author: David G. Green
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402042876
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Interactions matter. To understand the distributions of plants and animals in a landscape you need to understand how they interact with each other, and with their environment. The resulting networks of interactions make ecosystems highly complex. Recent research on complexity and artificial life provides many new insights about patterns and processes in landscapes and ecosystems. This book provides the first overview of that work for general readers. It covers such topics as connectivity, criticality, feedback, and networks, as well as their impact on the stability and predictability of ecosystem dynamics. With over 60 years of research experience of both ecology and complexity, the authors are uniquely qualified to provide a new perspective on traditional ecology. They argue that understanding ecological complexity is crucial in today’s globalized and interconnected world. Successful management of the world's ecosystems needs to combine models of ecosystem complexity with biodiversity, environmental, geographic and socioeconomic information.

Chaos and Complex Systems

Author: Stavros G. Stavrinides
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364233914X
Format: PDF
Download Now
Complexity Science and Chaos Theory are fascinating areas of scientific research with wide-ranging applications. The interdisciplinary nature and ubiquity of complexity and chaos are features that provides scientists with a motivation to pursue general theoretical tools and frameworks. Complex systems give rise to emergent behaviors, which in turn produce novel and interesting phenomena in science, engineering, as well as in the socio-economic sciences. The aim of all Symposia on Chaos and Complex Systems (CCS) is to bring together scientists, engineers, economists and social scientists, and to discuss the latest insights and results obtained in the area of corresponding nonlinear-system complex (chaotic) behavior. Especially for the “4th International Interdisciplinary Chaos Symposium on Chaos and Complex Systems,” which took place April 29th to May 2nd, 2012 in Antalya, Turkey, the scope of the symposium had been further enlarged so as to encompass the presentation of work from circuits to econophysics, and from nonlinear analysis to the history of chaos theory. The corresponding proceedings collected in this volume address a broad spectrum of contemporary topics, including but not limited to networks, circuits, systems, biology, evolution and ecology, nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation, as well as neural, psychological, psycho-social, socio-economic, management complexity and global systems.

Brain Dynamics

Author: Erol Başar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642745571
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
This volume is based on contributions to the second Brain Dynamics Conference, held in Berlin on August 10-14, 1987, as a satellite conference of the Budapest Congress of the International Brain Research Organization. Like the volume resulting from the first conference, Dynamics of Sensory and Cognitive Processing by the Brain, the present work covers new approaches to brain function, with emphasis on electromagnetic fields, EEG, event-related potentials, connectivistic views, and neural networks. Close attention is also paid to research in the emerging field of deterministic chaos and strange attractors. The diversity of this collection of papers reflects a multipronged advance in a hitherto relatively neglected domain, i. e., the study of signs of dynamic processes in organized neural tissue in order both to explain them and to exploit them for clues to system function. The need is greater than ever for new windows. This volume reflects a historical moment, the moment when a relatively neglected field of basic research into available signs of dynamic processes ongoing in organized neural tissue is expanding almost explosively to complement other approaches. From the topics treated, this book should appeal, as did its predecessor, to neuroscientists, neurologists, scientists studying complex systems, artificial intelligence, and neural networks, psychobiologists, and all basic and clinical investigators concerned with new techniques of monitoring and analyzing the brain's electromagnetic activity.

Diffusion in Materials

Author: A.L. Laskar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940091976X
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
This volume is the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, "Diffusion in Materials", held at "Centre Paul Langevin", Aussois, during March 12-25, 1989. There were 105 participants of whom 24 were lecturers and members of the international advisory committee. In addition to the participants from NATO countries, a small number of participants came from Australia, Hungary, Poland and Tunisia. The principal aim of the organizing committee was to bring together scientists of wide interest and expertise in the field of diffusion and to familiarize the young workers in material science with the wide range of theoretical models and methods and of experimental techniques . The Institute was concerned with the study of diffusion and related phenomena in solids which are at the cutting edge of novel technologies. The discussion of basic theories of defects in solids and their transport, with their applications in the understanding of diffusion processes in "simple solids" was followed by the wide range of current theoretical models and methods, experimental techniques and their potential. The lectures on the diffusion in specific materials included : metals, dilute and concentrated alloys, simple and compound semiconductors, stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric oxides, high-Tc compounds, carbides, nitrides, silicates, conducting polymers and thin films, ionic, superionic, amorphous and irradiated materials.

Soundscape Ecology

Author: Almo Farina
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400773749
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Soundscape Ecology represents a new branch of ecology and it is the result of the integration of different disciplines like Landscape ecology, Bioacoustics, Acoustic ecology, Biosemiotics, etc. The soundscape that is the object of this discipline, is defined as the acoustic context resulting from natural and human originated sounds and it is considered a relevant environmental proxy for animal and human life. With Soundscape Ecology Almo Farina means to offer a new cultural tool to investigate a partially explored component of the environmental complexity. For this he intends to set the principles of this new discipline, to delineate the epistemic domain in which to develop new ideas and theories and to describe the necessary integration with all the other ecological/environmental disciplines. The book is organized in ten chapters. The first two chapters delineate principles and theory of soundscape ecology. Chapters three and four describe the bioacoustic and communication theories. Chapter five is devoted to the human dimension of soundscape. Chapters six to eight regard the major sonic patterns like noise, choruses and vibrations. Chapter nine is devoted to the methods in soundscape ecology and finally chapter ten describes the application of the soundscape analysis.

The Evolutionary Foundations of Economics

Author: Kurt Dopfer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139443234
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
It is widely recognised that mainstream economics has failed to translate micro consistently into macro economics and to provide endogenous explanations for the continual changes in the economic system. Since the early 1980s, a growing number of economists have been trying to provide answers to these two key questions by applying an evolutionary approach. This new departure has yielded a rich literature with enormous variety, but the unifying principles connecting the various ideas and views presented are, as yet, not apparent. This 2005 volume brings together fifteen original articles from scholars - each of whom has made a significant contribution to the field - in their common effort to reconstruct economics as an evolutionary science. Using meso economics as an analytical entity to bridge micro and macro economics as well as static and dynamic realms, a unified economic theory emerges.

Synchronization

Author: Alexander Balanov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540721282
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
This fascinating work is devoted to the fundamental phenomenon in physics – synchronization that occurs in coupled non-linear dissipative oscillators. Examples of such systems range from mechanical clocks to population dynamics, from the human heart to neural networks. The main purpose of this book is to demonstrate that the complexity of synchronous patterns of real oscillating systems can be described in the framework of the general approach, and the authors study this phenomenon as applied to oscillations of different types, such as those with periodic, chaotic, noisy and noise-induced nature.

Thermal Physics and Thermal Analysis

Author: Jaroslav Šesták
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331945899X
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Features twenty-five chapter contributions from an international array of distinguished academics based in Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, Russia, and the USA. This multi-author contributed volume provides an up-to-date and authoritative overview of cutting-edge themes involving the thermal analysis, applied solid-state physics, micro- and nano-crystallinity of selected solids and their macro- and microscopic thermal properties. Distinctive chapters featured in the book include, among others, calorimetry time scales from days to microseconds, glass transition phenomena, kinetics of non-isothermal processes, thermal inertia and temperature gradients, thermodynamics of nanomaterials, self-organization, significance of temperature and entropy. Advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers working in the field of thermal analysis, thermophysical measurements and calorimetry will find this contributed volume invaluable. This is the third volume of the triptych volumes on thermal behaviour of materials; the previous two receiving thousand of downloads guaranteeing their worldwide impact.