Strain and Dislocation Gradients from Diffraction

Author: Rozaliya Barabash
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 190897964X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book highlights emerging diffraction studies of strain and dislocation gradients with mesoscale resolution, which is currently a focus of research at laboratories around the world. While ensemble-average diffraction techniques are mature, grain and subgrain level measurements needed to understand real materials are just emerging. In order to understand the diffraction signature of different defects, it is necessary to understand the distortions created by the defects and the corresponding changes in the reciprocal space of the non-ideal crystals. Starting with a review of defect classifications based on their displacement fields, this book then provides connections between different dislocation arrangements, including geometrically necessary and statistically stored dislocations, and other common defects and the corresponding changes in the reciprocal space and diffraction patterns. Subsequent chapters provide an overview of microdiffraction techniques developed during the last decade to extract information about strain and dislocation gradients. X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly exciting application compared with alternative probes of local crystalline structure, orientation and defect density, because it is inherently non-destructive and penetrating. Contents:Diffraction Analysis of Defects: State of the Art (Rozaliya I Barabash and Gene E Ice)X-ray Laue Diffraction Microscopy in 3D at the Advanced Photon Source (Wenjun Liu and Gene E Ice)High-Energy Transmission Laue (HETL) Micro-Beam Diffraction (Felix Hofmann and Alexander M Korsunsky)XMAS: A Versatile Tool for Analyzing Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction Data (Nobumichi Tamura)Laue Microdiffraction at the ESRF (Odile Robach, Christoph Kirchlechner, Jean-Sébastien Micha, Olivier Ulrich, Xavier Biquard, Olivier Geaymond, Olivier Castelnau, Michel Bornert, Johann Petit, Sophie Berveiller, Olivier Sicardy, Julie Villanova and François Rieutord)3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy (Henning Friis Poulsen, Søren Schmidt, Dorte Juul Jensen, Henning Osholm Sørensen, Erik Mejdal Lauridsen, Ulrik Lund Olsen, Wolfgang Ludwig, Andrew King, Jonathan Paul Wright and Gavin B M Vaughan)Grain Centre Mapping — 3DXRD Measurements of Average Grain Characteristic (Jette Oddershede, Søren Schmidt, Allan Lyckegaard, Erik Mejdal Lauridsen, Jonathan Paul Wright and Grethe Winther)Three-Dimensional X-ray Diffraction (3DXRD) Imaging Techniques (Wolfgang Ludwig, Andrew King and Péter Reischig)High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures (Wolfgang Pantleon, Christian Wejdemann, Bo Jakobsen, Henning Friis Poulsen and Ulrich Lienert)Reconstructing 2D and 3D X-ray Orientation Maps from White-Beam Laue (Jonathan Z Tischler)Energy-Variable X-ray Diffraction for Studying Polycrystalline Materials with High Depth Resolution (Emil Zolotoyabko)Microstructure Detail Extraction via EBSD: An Overview (David Fullwood, Brent Adams, Jay Basinger, Timothy Ruggles, Ali Khosravani, Caroline Sorensen and Joshua Kacher)High-Pressure Studies with Microdiffraction (Wenge Yang) Readership: Researchers in X-ray science, materials science, applied physics, and mechanical engineering. Keywords:Diffraction;Microdiffraction;Laue Diffraction;Strain;Dislocations;Geometrically Necessary Dislocations;Dislocation Density;Plastic Deformation;Lattice RotationsKey Features:The book addresses the following three questions: what is the current state-of-the-art in this field; what are the advantages, capabilities and limitations of competing methods; what are the practical tools needed for spatially-resolved diffraction methods

Research Methods in Biomineralization Science

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0124166555
Format: PDF, Docs
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This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers research methods in biomineralization science, and includes sections on such topics as determining solution chemistry, structure and nucleation; probing structure and dynamics at surfaces; and interfaces mapping biomineral and morphology and ultrastructure. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers research methods in biomineralization science Contains sections on such topics as and includes sections on such topics as determining solution chemistry, structure and nucleation; probing structure and dynamics at surfaces; and interfaces mapping biomineral and morphology and ultrastructure

Flexoelectricity in Solids

Author: Alexander K Tagantsev
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814719331
Format: PDF, Docs
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This unique compendium is devoted to flexoelectricity — the response of polarization to a strain gradient. The effect is analogous to piezoelectricity which is the response of polarization to strain itself. In contrast to piezoelectricity, which appears only in non-centrosymmetric materials, flexoelectric effect is allowed by symmetry in any materials. It becomes appreciable in nano-scale systems, where large strain gradients arise. The book discusses different nano-scale manifestations of the effect ranging from repulsion of acoustic and optic branches of materials to flexoelectricity in domain walls. It mainly caters for scientists, engineers and students.

Crystals in Glass

Author: E. D. Zanotto
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111855891X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A "must-have" for materials engineers, chemists, physicists, and geologists, this is one of the first "coffee-table" books in the field of glass science. Containing over fifty beautiful micrographs, the book reflects 35 years of original research by a highly regarded authority in the field. It contains 50 slides culled from tens of thousands of images on glass crystal nucleation, growth, and crystallization. The images represent glass crystallization mechanisms, including internal, surface, homogeneous, heterogeneous, and eutectic, crystal nucleation and growth.

MAX Phases and Ultra High Temperature Ceramics for Extreme Environments

Author: Low, I. M.
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1466640677
Format: PDF, Docs
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Ceramics are a versatile material, more so than is widely known. They are thermal resistant, poor electrical conductors, insulators against nuclear radiation, and not easily damaged, making ceramics a key component in many industrial processes. MAX Phases and Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics for Extreme Environments investigates a new class of ultra-durable ceramic materials, which exhibit characteristics of both ceramics and metals. Readers will explore recent advances in the manufacturing of ceramic materials that improve their durability and other physical properties, enhancing their overall usability and cost-effectiveness. This book will be of primary use to researchers, academics, and practitioners in chemical, mechanical, and electrical engineering. This book is part of the Research Essentials collection.

Texture Analysis in Materials Science

Author: H.-J. Bunge
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483278395
Format: PDF, ePub
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Texture Analysis in Materials Science Mathematical Methods focuses on the methodologies, processes, techniques, and mathematical aids in the orientation distribution of crystallites. The manuscript first offers information on the orientation of individual crystallites and orientation distributions. Topics include properties and representations of rotations, orientation distance, and ambiguity of rotation as a consequence of crystal and specimen symmetry. The book also takes a look at expansion of orientation distribution functions in series of generalized spherical harmonics, fiber textures, and methods not based on the series expansion. The publication reviews special distribution functions, texture transformation, and system of programs for the texture analysis of sheets of cubic materials. The text also ponders on the estimation of errors, texture analysis, and physical properties of polycrystalline materials. Topics include comparison of experimental and recalculated pole figures; indetermination error for incomplete pole figures; and determination of the texture coefficients from anisotropie polycrystal properties. The manuscript is a dependable reference for readers interested in the use of mathematical aids in the orientation distribution of crystallites.

Statics of Deformable Solids

Author: Raymond L. Bisplinghoff
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486799409
Format: PDF, Docs
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Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

Encyclopedia Of Two phase Heat Transfer And Flow I Fundamentals And Methods A 4 volume Set

Author: Thome John R
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814623229
Format: PDF
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The aim of the two-set series is to present a very detailed and up-to-date reference for researchers and practicing engineers in the fields of mechanical, refrigeration, chemical, nuclear and electronics engineering on the important topic of two-phase heat transfer and two-phase flow. The scope of the first set of 4 volumes presents the fundamentals of the two-phase flows and heat transfer mechanisms, and describes in detail the most important prediction methods, while the scope of the second set of 4 volumes presents numerous special topics and numerous applications, also including numerical simulation methods.Practicing engineers will find extensive coverage to applications involving: multi-microchannel evaporator cold plates for electronics cooling, boiling on enhanced tubes and tube bundles, flow pattern based methods for predicting boiling and condensation inside horizontal tubes, pressure drop methods for singularies (U-bends and contractions), boiling in multiport tubes, and boiling and condensation in plate heat exchangers. All of these chapters include the latest methods for predicting not only local heat transfer coefficients but also pressure drops.Professors and students will find this 'Encyclopediaa of Two-Phase Heat Transfer and Flow' particularly exciting, as it contains authored books and thorough state-of-the-art reviews on many basic and special topics, such as numerical modeling of two-phase heat tranfser and adiabatic bubbly and slug flows, the unified annular flow boiling model, flow pattern maps, condensation and boiling theories, new emerging topics, etc.

Mechanical Stress on the Nanoscale

Author: Margrit Hanbücken
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527639551
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Bringing together experts from the various disciplines involved, this first comprehensive overview of the current level of stress engineering on the nanoscale is unique in combining the theoretical fundamentals with simulation methods, model systems and characterization techniques. Essential reading for researchers in microelectronics, optoelectronics, sensing, and photonics.