Strain and Dislocation Gradients from Diffraction

Author: Rozaliya Barabash
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 190897964X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book highlights emerging diffraction studies of strain and dislocation gradients with mesoscale resolution, which is currently a focus of research at laboratories around the world. While ensemble-average diffraction techniques are mature, grain and subgrain level measurements needed to understand real materials are just emerging. In order to understand the diffraction signature of different defects, it is necessary to understand the distortions created by the defects and the corresponding changes in the reciprocal space of the non-ideal crystals. Starting with a review of defect classifications based on their displacement fields, this book then provides connections between different dislocation arrangements, including geometrically necessary and statistically stored dislocations, and other common defects and the corresponding changes in the reciprocal space and diffraction patterns. Subsequent chapters provide an overview of microdiffraction techniques developed during the last decade to extract information about strain and dislocation gradients. X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly exciting application compared with alternative probes of local crystalline structure, orientation and defect density, because it is inherently non-destructive and penetrating. Contents:Diffraction Analysis of Defects: State of the Art (Rozaliya I Barabash and Gene E Ice)X-ray Laue Diffraction Microscopy in 3D at the Advanced Photon Source (Wenjun Liu and Gene E Ice)High-Energy Transmission Laue (HETL) Micro-Beam Diffraction (Felix Hofmann and Alexander M Korsunsky)XMAS: A Versatile Tool for Analyzing Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction Data (Nobumichi Tamura)Laue Microdiffraction at the ESRF (Odile Robach, Christoph Kirchlechner, Jean-Sébastien Micha, Olivier Ulrich, Xavier Biquard, Olivier Geaymond, Olivier Castelnau, Michel Bornert, Johann Petit, Sophie Berveiller, Olivier Sicardy, Julie Villanova and François Rieutord)3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy (Henning Friis Poulsen, Søren Schmidt, Dorte Juul Jensen, Henning Osholm Sørensen, Erik Mejdal Lauridsen, Ulrik Lund Olsen, Wolfgang Ludwig, Andrew King, Jonathan Paul Wright and Gavin B M Vaughan)Grain Centre Mapping — 3DXRD Measurements of Average Grain Characteristic (Jette Oddershede, Søren Schmidt, Allan Lyckegaard, Erik Mejdal Lauridsen, Jonathan Paul Wright and Grethe Winther)Three-Dimensional X-ray Diffraction (3DXRD) Imaging Techniques (Wolfgang Ludwig, Andrew King and Péter Reischig)High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures (Wolfgang Pantleon, Christian Wejdemann, Bo Jakobsen, Henning Friis Poulsen and Ulrich Lienert)Reconstructing 2D and 3D X-ray Orientation Maps from White-Beam Laue (Jonathan Z Tischler)Energy-Variable X-ray Diffraction for Studying Polycrystalline Materials with High Depth Resolution (Emil Zolotoyabko)Microstructure Detail Extraction via EBSD: An Overview (David Fullwood, Brent Adams, Jay Basinger, Timothy Ruggles, Ali Khosravani, Caroline Sorensen and Joshua Kacher)High-Pressure Studies with Microdiffraction (Wenge Yang) Readership: Researchers in X-ray science, materials science, applied physics, and mechanical engineering. Keywords:Diffraction;Microdiffraction;Laue Diffraction;Strain;Dislocations;Geometrically Necessary Dislocations;Dislocation Density;Plastic Deformation;Lattice RotationsKey Features:The book addresses the following three questions: what is the current state-of-the-art in this field; what are the advantages, capabilities and limitations of competing methods; what are the practical tools needed for spatially-resolved diffraction methods

Dislocations in Solids

Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080524689
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Dislocations are lines of irregularity in the structure of a solid analogous to the bumps in a badly laid carpet. Like these bumps they can be easily moved, and they provide the most important mechanism by which the solid can be deformed. They also have a strong influence on crystal growth and on the electronic properties of semiconductors. · Influence of dislocations on piezoelectric behavior · New mechanisms for hardening in twinned crystals · Bringing theories of martensite transformation into agreement · Atomic scale motion of dislocations in electron microscopy · Dislocation patterns deduced from X-ray diffraction · Role of dislocations in friction · Dislocation motion in quasicrystals

Solution of Crack Problems

Author: D.A. Hills
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401586489
Format: PDF
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This book is concerned with the numerical solution of crack problems. The techniques to be developed are particularly appropriate when cracks are relatively short, and are growing in the neighbourhood of some stress raising feature, causing a relatively steep stress gradient. It is therefore practicable to represent the geometry in an idealised way, so that a precise solution may be obtained. This contrasts with, say, the finite element method in which the geometry is modelled exactly, but the subsequent solution is approximate, and computationally more taxing. The family of techniques presented in this book, based loosely on the pioneering work of Eshelby in the late 1950's, and developed by Erdogan, Keer, Mura and many others cited in the text, present an attractive alternative. The basic idea is to use the superposition of the stress field present in the unfiawed body, together with an unknown distribution of 'strain nuclei' (in this book, the strain nucleus employed is the dislocation), chosen so that the crack faces become traction-free. The solution used for the stress field for the nucleus is chosen so that other boundary conditions are satisfied. The technique is therefore efficient, and may be used to model the evolution of a developing crack in two or three dimensions. Solution techniques are described in some detail, and the book should be readily accessible to most engineers, whilst preserving the rigour demanded by the researcher who wishes to develop the method itself.

Crystal Indentation Hardness

Author: Ronald W. Armstrong
Publisher: MDPI
ISBN: 3038429678
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Crystal Indentation Hardness" that was published in Crystals

C H N and O in Si and Characterization and Simulation of Materials and Processes

Author: A. Borghesi
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 044459633X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Containing over 200 papers, this volume contains the proceedings of two symposia in the E-MRS series. Part I presents a state of the art review of the topic - Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen in Silicon and in Other Elemental Semiconductors. There was strong representation from the industrial laboratories, illustrating that the topic is highly relevant for the semiconductor industry. The second part of the volume deals with a topic which is undergoing a process of convergence with two concerns that are more particularly application oriented. Firstly, the advanced instrumentation which, through the use of atomic force and tunnel microscopies, high resolution electron microscopy and other high precision analysis instruments, now allows for direct access to atomic mechanisms. Secondly, the technological development which in all areas of applications, particularly in the field of microelectronics and microsystems, requires as a result of the miniaturisation race, a precise mastery of the microscopic mechanisms.

Investigations and Applications of Severe Plastic Deformation

Author: Terry Lowe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401140626
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Material processing techniques that employ severe plastic deformation have evolved over the past decade, producing metals, alloys and composites having extraordinary properties. Variants of SPD methods are now capable of creating monolithic materials with submicron and nanocrystalline grain sizes. The resulting novel properties of these materials has led to a growing scientific and commercial interest in them. They offer the promise of bulk nanocrystalline materials for structural; applications, including nanocomposites of lightweight alloys with unprecedented strength. These materials may also enable the use of alternative metal shaping processes, such as high strain rate superplastic forming. Prospective applications for medical, automotive, aerospace and other industries are already under development.

Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Methods

Author: Franz Roters
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527642099
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Written by the leading experts in computational materials science, this handy reference concisely reviews the most important aspects of plasticity modeling: constitutive laws, phase transformations, texture methods, continuum approaches and damage mechanisms. As a result, it provides the knowledge needed to avoid failures in critical systems udner mechanical load. With its various application examples to micro- and macrostructure mechanics, this is an invaluable resource for mechanical engineers as well as for researchers wanting to improve on this method and extend its outreach.