Stratospheric Flight

Author: Andras Sóbester
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441994585
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In this book, Dr. Andras Sobester reviews the science behind high altitude flight. He takes the reader on a journey that begins with the complex physiological questions involved in taking humans into the "death zone." How does the body react to falling ambient pressure? Why is hypoxia (oxygen deficiency associated with low air pressure) so dangerous and why is it so difficult to 'design out' of aircraft, why does it still cause fatalities in the 21st century? What cabin pressures are air passengers and military pilots exposed to and why is the choice of an appropriate range of values such a difficult problem? How do high altitude life support systems work and what happens if they fail? What happens if cabin pressure is lost suddenly or, even worse, slowly and unnoticed? The second part of the book tackles the aeronautical problems of flying in the upper atmosphere. What loads does stratospheric flight place on pressurized cabins at high altitude and why are these difficult to predict? What determines the maximum altitude an aircraft can climb to? What is the 'coffin corner' and how can it be avoided? The history of aviation has seen a handful of airplanes reach altitudes in excess of 70,000 feet - what are the extreme engineering challenges of climbing into the upper stratosphere? Flying high makes very high speeds possible -- what are the practical limits? The key advantage of stratospheric flight is that the aircraft will be 'above the weather' - but is this always the case? Part three of the book investigates the extreme atmospheric conditions that may be encountered in the upper atmosphere. How high can a storm cell reach and what is it like to fly into one? How frequent is high altitude 'clear air' turbulence, what causes it and what are its effects on aircraft? The stratosphere can be extremely cold - how cold does it have to be before flight becomes unsafe? What happens when an aircraft encounters volcanic ash at high altitude? Very high winds can be encountered at the lower boundary of the stratosphere - what effect do they have on aviation? Finally, part four looks at the extreme limits of stratospheric flight. How high will a winged aircraft will ever be able to fly? What are the ultimate altitude limits of ballooning? What is the greatest altitude that you could still bail out from? And finally, what are the challenges of exploring the stratospheres of other planets and moons? The author discusses these and many other questions, the known knowns, the known unkonwns and the potential unknown unknowns of stratospheric flight through a series of notable moments of the recent history of mankind's forays into the upper atmospheres, each of these incidents, accidents or great triumphs illustrating a key aspect of what makes stratospheric flight aviation at the limit.

Stratonauts

Author: Manfred "Dutch" von Ehrenfired
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319029010
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Just what does it take to be a stratonaut, soaring to higher and higher altitudes of Earth's atmosphere? Brave men and women have reached extreme heights in balloons, aircraft and rocket ships over the past two centuries, from the first untethered balloon flight to the first flights in the newly defined stratosphere, through to the present flights that continue to set new records. This book defines the altitudes related to the stratosphere, how it changes with latitude and the effects on ascending aviators. Also described is how over time technology enabled aircraft and balloons to achieve higher altitudes. The book shows the clear influence of the military on designs that initially focused on speed and maneuverability, but only later on reaching new altitudes. The early flights into the troposphere and eventually the mid to upper reaches of the stratosphere are chronicled, with great emphasis on flight operations. This includes decompression, bailouts, inertia coupling, ejections, catastrophic disintegration, crashes and deaths. Although the book highlights major altitude attempts and records, it also focuses on the life-threatening problems confronting the would-be stratonaut and the causes of many of their deaths. In doing so, it tries to define just what it takes to be a stratonaut.

Physik des erdnahen Weltraums

Author: Gerd Prölss
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642188079
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Dieses Buch, das in die Gebiete, Methoden und Ergebnisse der Extraterrestrischen Physik einführen möchte, wendet sich an ein relativ breites Publikum. Vorausgesetzt werden lediglich Grundkenntnisse der Mathematik und Physik, wie sie in den ersten Semestern eines natur- oder ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Studiums erworben werden. Spezielleres Wissen wird im Zusammenhang mit dem jeweils betrachteten Phänomen abgeleitet. Es eignet sich daher sowohl zum Selbststudium für Quereinsteiger als auch vorlesungsbegleitend für alle Studentent der Fachrichtungen Physik, Geophysik, Meteorologie und Astronomie.

Disasters and Accidents in Manned Spaceflight

Author: Shayler David
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781852332259
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Here, Dave Shayler examines the hurdles faced by space crews as they prepare and embark on space missions. Divided into six parts, the text opens with the fateful, tragic mission of the Challenger crew in 1986. This is followed by a review of the risks that accompany every space trip and the unique environment in which the space explorer lives and works. The next four sections cover the four parts of any space flight (training, launch, in-flight and recovery) and present major historical incidents in each case. The final section looks at the next forty years beyond the Earth's atmosphere, beginning with the International Space Station and moving on to the difficulties inherent in a manned exploration of Mars.

Rocketing Into the Future

Author: Michel van Pelt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461432006
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book describes the technology, history, and future of rocket planes. Michel van Pelt journies into this exciting world, examining the exotic concepts and actual flying vehicles that have been devised over the last hundred years. He recounts the history of rocket airplanes, from the early pioneers who attached simple rockets onto their wooden glider airplanes to the modern world of high-tech research vehicles. The author visits museums where rare examples of early rocket planes are kept and modern laboratories where future spaceplanes are being developed. He explains the technology in an easily understandable way, describing the various types of rocket airplanes and looking at the possibilities for the future. Michel van Pelt considers future spaceplanes, presenting various modern concepts and developments. He describes the development from cutting edge research via demonstrator vehicles to operational use. He also evaluates the replacement of the Space Shuttle with a seemingly old-fashioned capsule system, the parallel developments in suborbital spaceplanes such as SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo, piloted versus automatic flight, and related developments in airliners and military aircraft.

Cold War Space Sleuths

Author: Dominic Phelan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461430526
Format: PDF, ePub
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“Space Sleuths of the Cold War” relates for the first time the inside story of the amateur spies who monitored the Soviet space program during the Cold War. It is written by many of those “space sleuths” themselves and chronicles the key moments in their discovery of hidden history. This book shows that dedicated observers were often better than professionals at interpreting that information coming out of the USSR during the dark days of the Cold War. This book takes a unique approach to the history of Soviet spaceflight – looking at the personal stories of some of the researchers as well as the space secrets the Soviets tried to keep hidden. The fascinating account often reads like a Cold War espionage novel. “Space Sleuths of the Cold War” includes an impressive list of contributors, such as: Editor Dominic Phelan, giving an overall history of the Cold War hunt for Soviet space secrets. Space writer Brian Harvey reveals his own personal search through official Soviet radio and magazines to find out what they were (and weren’t) revealing to the outside world at the height of the space race. Sven Grahn from Sweden details his own 40 year quest to understand what was happening on the other side of the Iron Curtain. Professional American historian Asif Siddiqi explores his own adventures in the once secret Russian archives – often seeing documents never before read by Westerners. Dutch cosmonaut researcher Bert Vis provides an inside account of the Yuri Gagarin training center in Moscow. Belgian researcher Bart Hendrickx’s details his important translation of the 1960s’ diaries of cosmonaut team leader General Kamanin. Pioneer space sleuth James Oberg’s shares his memories of his own notable ‘scoops.' Paris-based writer Christian Lardier recounts the efforts of French space sleuths – whose work was frequently overlooked in the USA and Britain because of the language barrier.

Leben 3 0

Author: Max Tegmark
Publisher: Ullstein Buchverlage
ISBN: 3843716706
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Die Nobelpreis-Schmiede Massachusetts Institute of Technology ist der bedeutendste technologische Think Tank der USA. Dort arbeitet Professor Max Tegmark mit den weltweit führenden Entwicklern künstlicher Intelligenz zusammen, die ihm exklusive Einblicke in ihre Labors gewähren. Die Erkenntnisse, die er daraus zieht, sind atemberaubend und zutiefst verstörend zugleich. Neigt sich die Ära der Menschen dem Ende zu? Der Physikprofessor Max Tegmark zeigt anhand der neusten Forschung, was die Menschheit erwartet. Hier eine Auswahl möglicher Szenarien: - Eroberer: Künstliche Intelligenz übernimmt die Macht und entledigt sich der Menschheit mit Methoden, die wir noch nicht einmal verstehen. - Der versklavte Gott: Die Menschen bemächtigen sich einer superintelligenten künstlichen Intelligenz und nutzen sie, um Hochtechnologien herzustellen. - Umkehr: Der technologische Fortschritt wird radikal unterbunden und wir kehren zu einer prä-technologischen Gesellschaft im Stil der Amish zurück. - Selbstzerstörung: Superintelligenz wird nicht erreicht, weil sich die Menschheit vorher nuklear oder anders selbst vernichtet. - Egalitäres Utopia: Es gibt weder Superintelligenz noch Besitz, Menschen und kybernetische Organismen existieren friedlich nebeneinander. Max Tegmark bietet kluge und fundierte Zukunftsszenarien basierend auf seinen exklusiven Einblicken in die aktuelle Forschung zur künstlichen Intelligenz.

GPS in der Praxis

Author: Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3709193699
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Das satellitengestützte Positionierungssystem GPS wurde ursprünglich für die militärische Navigation konzipiert und entwickelt. Bald wurden aber auch die Anwendungsmöglichkeiten im zivilen Bereich erkannt. Unter anderem zählt GPS heute bereits zu den Standardmethoden der geodätischen Punktbestimmung, wobei Genauigkeiten bis in den Millimeterbereich erzielt werden können. Dieses Buch richtet sich an alle, die eine praxisbezogene Beschreibung von GPS hinsichtlich der Beobachtung und der Auswertung suchen. Nach einer elementaren Einführung in das Prinzip von GPS werden die wichtigsten Aspekte der Beobachtung beginnend von der Planung über die Durchführung bis zur Berechnung der Basisvektoren beschrieben. Das Schwergewicht des Buches liegt in der Auswertung. Im Detail werden die Netzbildung, die Transformation der GPS-Ergebnisse in das lokale geodätische Datum sowie die gemeinsame Ausgleichung von GPS und terrestrischen Messungen behandelt, wobei zahlreiche numerische Beispiele angeführt sind. Im Anhang sind neben den Zahlenwerten für die Parameter der bekanntesten Ellipsoide auch die Formelsysteme für die gebräuchlichsten konformen Abbildungen enthalten.

Der wissenschaftliche Umgang mit Zukunft

Author: Johannes Gabriel
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658018755
Format: PDF, ePub
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Wissenschaft und Zukunft stehen in einem Spannungsfeld zueinander, denn Zukunft lässt sich nicht wissen. Wissenschaft kann nur dann ohne Rückgriff auf Ideologie mit Zukunft umgehen, wenn sie sich nicht auf die Erzeugung von Wissen, sondern auf das Kenntlichmachen von Nicht-Wissen-Können konzentriert und mit plausiblen Gedankenexperimenten anstatt mit vermeintlichen Erklärungen über Zukunft arbeitet. Wenn sich die wissenschaftstheoretischen und –philosophischen Grundlagen derart anpassen lassen, kann der Wissenschaft eine Beurteilung verschiedener Umgangsformen mit Zukunft wie Prognosen und Szenarien gelingen. ​

Ice Ages and Astronomical Causes

Author: Richard A. Muller
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540437796
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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It is not possible to understand the present or future climate unless scientists can account for the enormous and rapid cycles of glaciation that have taken place over the last million years, and which are expected to continue into the future. A great deal has happened in the theory of the ice ages over the last decade, and it is now widley accepted that ice ages are driven by changes in the Earth's orbit. The study of ice ages is very inter-disciplinary, covering geology, physics, glaciology, oceanography, atmospheric science, planetary orbit calculations astrophysics and statistics.