Stratospheric Flight

Author: Andras Sóbester
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441994585
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In this book, Dr. Andras Sobester reviews the science behind high altitude flight. He takes the reader on a journey that begins with the complex physiological questions involved in taking humans into the "death zone." How does the body react to falling ambient pressure? Why is hypoxia (oxygen deficiency associated with low air pressure) so dangerous and why is it so difficult to 'design out' of aircraft, why does it still cause fatalities in the 21st century? What cabin pressures are air passengers and military pilots exposed to and why is the choice of an appropriate range of values such a difficult problem? How do high altitude life support systems work and what happens if they fail? What happens if cabin pressure is lost suddenly or, even worse, slowly and unnoticed? The second part of the book tackles the aeronautical problems of flying in the upper atmosphere. What loads does stratospheric flight place on pressurized cabins at high altitude and why are these difficult to predict? What determines the maximum altitude an aircraft can climb to? What is the 'coffin corner' and how can it be avoided? The history of aviation has seen a handful of airplanes reach altitudes in excess of 70,000 feet - what are the extreme engineering challenges of climbing into the upper stratosphere? Flying high makes very high speeds possible -- what are the practical limits? The key advantage of stratospheric flight is that the aircraft will be 'above the weather' - but is this always the case? Part three of the book investigates the extreme atmospheric conditions that may be encountered in the upper atmosphere. How high can a storm cell reach and what is it like to fly into one? How frequent is high altitude 'clear air' turbulence, what causes it and what are its effects on aircraft? The stratosphere can be extremely cold - how cold does it have to be before flight becomes unsafe? What happens when an aircraft encounters volcanic ash at high altitude? Very high winds can be encountered at the lower boundary of the stratosphere - what effect do they have on aviation? Finally, part four looks at the extreme limits of stratospheric flight. How high will a winged aircraft will ever be able to fly? What are the ultimate altitude limits of ballooning? What is the greatest altitude that you could still bail out from? And finally, what are the challenges of exploring the stratospheres of other planets and moons? The author discusses these and many other questions, the known knowns, the known unkonwns and the potential unknown unknowns of stratospheric flight through a series of notable moments of the recent history of mankind's forays into the upper atmospheres, each of these incidents, accidents or great triumphs illustrating a key aspect of what makes stratospheric flight aviation at the limit.

Stratonauts

Author: Manfred von Ehrenfried
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319029010
Format: PDF, Docs
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Just what does it take to be a stratonaut, soaring to higher and higher altitudes of Earth's atmosphere? Brave men and women have reached extreme heights in balloons, aircraft and rocket ships over the past two centuries, from the first untethered balloon flight to the first flights in the newly defined stratosphere, through to the present flights that continue to set new records. This book defines the altitudes related to the stratosphere, how it changes with latitude and the effects on ascending aviators. Also described is how over time technology enabled aircraft and balloons to achieve higher altitudes. The book shows the clear influence of the military on designs that initially focused on speed and maneuverability, but only later on reaching new altitudes. The early flights into the troposphere and eventually the mid to upper reaches of the stratosphere are chronicled, with great emphasis on flight operations. This includes decompression, bailouts, inertia coupling, ejections, catastrophic disintegration, crashes and deaths. Although the book highlights major altitude attempts and records, it also focuses on the life-threatening problems confronting the would-be stratonaut and the causes of many of their deaths. In doing so, it tries to define just what it takes to be a stratonaut.

Disasters and Accidents in Manned Spaceflight

Author: David Shayler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781852332259
Format: PDF, ePub
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Many of the perils and risks associated with space travel have been evident since the first manned missions hurled astronauts into orbit. As the International Space Station (ISS) takes shape, this timely book reports on the nature of the dangers associated with our dramatic ventures into space. It offers a detailed account of the captivating history of space flight, analyzing some of the incidents and disasters involving orbital and lunar programs, including Gemini, Apollo, Soyuz, Mir, and the Space Shuttle. It culminates with an outlook towards future planetary explorations and the ISS.

Pulling G

Author: Erik Seedhouse
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461430305
Format: PDF, ePub
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Performing in a high G environment is extremely demanding on the body: pulling G forces blood to the body’s extremities, putting the pilot, astronaut or driver at risk of G-Induced Lack of Consciousness (G-LOC). In “Pulling G” Erik Seedhouse describes what it feels like to pull 7 G in a fighter plane and the G pressures on the body when driving a Formula 1 car and many other gravity-defying vehicles. The book relates, for the first time, the effects of G in both hyper-gravity and microgravity. It describes the human response to increased and decreased G and the potentially dangerous effects of high G, with particular reference to dynamic injuries sustained in high acceleration environments. “Pulling G” provides an overview of G-related research and the development of intervention methods to mitigate the effects of increased and reduced G. As well as relating the training required to overcome G-forces on the Formula 1 track, Erik Seedhouse looks at the G forces encountered in such G environments as ejection from an aircraft, launch/re-entry, and zero-G. The book also considers how artificial gravity can be used to prevent bone demineralization and to reduce the effects of de-conditioning in astronauts. Erik Seedhouse is eminently qualified to describe the effects of large accelerations on the body. In addition to being the author of several previously published Springer Praxis books, he has developed astronaut-training protocols and is the training director for Astronauts for Hire (A4H). He is also the Canadian Forces’ High Risk Acceleration Training Officer.

Ice Ages and Astronomical Causes

Author: Richard A. Muller
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540437796
Format: PDF
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It is not possible to understand the present or future climate unless scientists can account for the enormous and rapid cycles of glaciation that have taken place over the last million years, and which are expected to continue into the future. A great deal has happened in the theory of the ice ages over the last decade, and it is now widley accepted that ice ages are driven by changes in the Earth's orbit. The study of ice ages is very inter-disciplinary, covering geology, physics, glaciology, oceanography, atmospheric science, planetary orbit calculations astrophysics and statistics.

Spacesuit

Author: Nicholas De Monchaux
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 026201520X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Chronicles the creation of the Apollo 11 spacesuits worn by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, which were designed by the women's undergarment-maker Playtex and consisted of 21 specialized layers, in a book that includes 140 cull-color illustrations.

The Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Composition from Space

Author: John P. Burrows
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642147913
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The impact of anthropogenic activities on our atmospheric environment is of growing public concern and satellite-based techniques now provide an essential component of observational strategies on regional and global scales. The purpose of this book is to summarise the state of the art in the field in general, while describing both key techniques and findings in particular. It opens with an historical perspective of the field together with the basic principles of remote sensing from space. Three chapters follow on the techniques and on the solutions to the problems associated with the various spectral regions in which observations are made. The particular challenges posed by aerosols and clouds are covered in the next two chapters. Of special importance is the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing data and these issues are covered in a chapter on validation. The final section of the book is concerned with the exploitation of data, with chapters on observational aspects, which includes both individual and synergistic studies, and on the comparison of global and regional observations with chemical transport and climate models and the added value that the interaction brings to both. The book concludes with scientific needs and likely future developments in the field, and the necessary actions to be taken if we are to have the global observation system that the Earth needs in its present, deteriorating state. The appendices provide a comprehensive list of satellite instruments, global representations of some ancillary data such as fire counts and light pollution, a list of abbreviations and acronyms, and a set of colourful timelines indicating the satellite coverage of tropospheric composition in the foreseeable future. Altogether, this book will be a timely reference and overview for anyone working at the interface of environmental, atmospheric and space sciences.

Volcano Deformation

Author: Daniel Dzurisin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540493026
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Volcanoes and eruptions are dramatic surface man telemetry and processing, and volcano-deformation ifestations of dynamic processes within the Earth, source models over the past three decades. There has mostly but not exclusively localized along the been a virtual explosion of volcano-geodesy studies boundaries of Earth's relentlessly shifting tectonic and in the modeling and interpretation of ground plates. Anyone who has witnessed volcanic activity deformation data. Nonetheless, other than selective, has to be impressed by the variety and complexity of brief summaries in journal articles and general visible eruptive phenomena. Equally complex, works on volcano-monitoring and hazards mitiga however, if not even more so, are the geophysical, tion (e. g. , UNESCO, 1972; Agnew, 1986; Scarpa geochemical, and hydrothermal processes that occur and Tilling, 1996), a modern, comprehensive treat underground - commonly undetectable by the ment of volcano geodesy and its applications was human senses - before, during, and after eruptions. non-existent, until now. Experience at volcanoes worldwide has shown that, In the mid-1990s, when Daniel Dzurisin (DZ to at volcanoes with adequate instrumental monitor friends and colleagues) was serving as the Scientist ing, nearly all eruptions are preceded and accom in-Charge of the USGS Cascades Volcano Observa panied by measurable changes in the physical and tory (CVO), I first learned of his dream to write a (or) chemical state of the volcanic system. While book on volcano geodesy.

Touching Space

Author: Gregory P. Kennedy
Publisher: Schiffer Pub Limited
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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"Project Manhigh took humans to the threshold of space using balloons. In the 1950s, a small band of Air Force doctors were on the cutting edge of the United States' space research programs. Working at the Aeromedical Field Laboratory at Holloman Air Force Base in southern New Mexico, they used balloons to carry laboratory animals followed by human pilots above 99% of the atmosphere. Drawing upon flight reports and technical data, this book documents Project Manhigh and the high altitude flights that preceded it. The Manhigh flights were, in many ways, prototypes for future space missions. On each of the three flights, the Air Force placed a lone pilot in a sealed capsule nineteen miles above the ground. At such extreme altitudes, the pilots were well within the functional equivalent of outer space and needed the sealed capsule to survive. Manhigh existed prior to the creation of NASA and helped pave the way for human space exploration."--P. [4] of cover.

Monitoring Volcanoes in the North Pacific

Author: Kenneson Gene Dean
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540687505
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book is a visual learning experience as recorded on satellite images of volcanic eruptions and a manual describing how it is used for operational satellite monitoring. The atlas shows examples of the largest eruptions worldwide. The book fills a huge gap in the science of volcano remote sensing. A CD-ROM is included containing all the images and an associated website which will be regularly updated, showing results from new and current eruptions.