Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology

Author: Keith P. Johnston
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN: 9780841216785
Format: PDF
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New directions in supercritical fluids science and technology, fluorescence spectroscopy studies of intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluids, solvation structure in supercritical fluid mixtures based on molecular distribution functions, gibbs-ensemble Monte Carlo simulations of phase equilibria in supercritical fluid mixtures, spectroscopic determination of solvent strength and structure in supercritical fluid mixtures, partition coefficients of polyethyle glycols in super critical carbon dioxide, experimental measurement of supercritical fluid-liquid phase equilibrium, vapor-liquid equilibria of fatty acid esters in supercritical fluids, four-phase equilibrium of two ternary organic systems with carbon dioxide, direct viscosity enhancement of carbon dioxide, inverse emulsion polymerization of acrylamide, interaction of polymers with near-critical carbon dioxide, fundamental kinetics of methanol oxidation in supercritical fluids, thermodynamic analysis of corrosion of iron alloys in supercritical water, electrochemical measurements of corrosion of iron alloys in supercritical water, phase and reaction equilibria considerations in the evaluation and operation of supercritical fluid reaction processes, kinetic model for supercritical delignification of wood, gas antisolvent recrystallization solids formation after the expansion of supercritical mixtures, food, pharmaceutical, and environmental applications, design of commercial plant.

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids

Author: Michael Türk
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444594434
Format: PDF, Docs
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Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties

Innovations in Supercritical Fluids

Author: Keith W. Hutchenson
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Presents an overview of supercritical fluid science and technology with emphasis on developments in solubility and modeling. Provides comprehensive coverage of current research, including molecular interactions and simulations, phase behavior, chemical reactions in supercritical fluids, supercritical water oxidation, and forest products applications. Addresses various aspects of the supercritical water oxidation process, including fundamental kinetics and modeling, simulations of hydrogen bonding and solvation, catalysis, use of unconventional oxidants, corrosion issues, reactor design and simulation, and applications. Includes a new technique for the rapid and accurate mapping of critical curve phase boundaries.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Author: Esteban Brignole
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128082577
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Phase equilibrium knowledge is required for the design of all sorts of chemical processes that may involve separations, reactions, fluids flow, particle micronization, etc. Indeed, different phase behavior scenarios are required for a rational conceptual process design. The aim of this chapter is to present the possible fluid mixture phase behavior that can be found in binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems. Moreover, representation of phase behavior in terms of phase diagrams is discussed. Dealing with phase diagrams of complex mixtures is not an easy task for beginners; however, very simple concepts are behind the rules for their construction. Phase diagrams are essential tools for phase equilibrium engineering as they provide valuable hints to understand the process and to assess the feasible and optimum operating regions. In this chapter, the “phenomenological” meaning of each phase behavior and its relation with molecular properties is discussed. A special attention is given to binary system phase behavior. Even though, in practice we rarely found such simple mixtures, they furnish a great deal of information for the understanding of multicomponent systems.

High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

Author: Ulrich K Deiters
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444563547
Format: PDF
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The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

Supercritical Fluid Technology in Materials Science and Engineering

Author: Ya-Ping Sun
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824706517
Format: PDF, ePub
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This title analyzes the chemical reactions, structures and fundamental properties of supercritical fluid systems for the production of new compounds, nanomaterials, fibers, and films. It complies contemporary research and technological advances for increased selectivity and reduced waste in chemical, industrial, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Topics include fluid dynamics, catalysis, hydrothermal synthesis, surfactants, conducting polymers, crystal growth, and other aspects and applications of supercritical fluids.

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds

Author: Can Erkey
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080914489
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Organometallic compounds are utilized as reagents in the preparation and processing of advanced nanostructured materials, as catalysts in the production of a wide variety of specialty chemicals and polymers, and as drugs. Supercritical fluid science and technology has a wide variety of applications ranging from extraction of pharmaceutically active compounds to the synthesis of advanced materials. The combination of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids has significant potential. This book covers the fundamental aspects and related applications in this rapidly growing area. Covers the preparation of nanostructured composite materials using supercritical fluids Focuses on the intersection of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids Addresses the behavior of organometallic compounds in supercritical fluid environments

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Author: Richard Smith Jr.
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080931308
Format: PDF, ePub
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This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning

Author: Samuel P. Sawan
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0815519168
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Although supercritial fluid (SCF) technology is now widely used in extraction and purification processes (in the petrochemical, food and pharmaceuticals industries), this book is the first to address the new application of cleaning. The objective is to provide a roadmap for readers who want to know whether SCF technology can meet their own processing and cleaning needs. It is particularly helpful to those striving to balance the requirements for a clean product and a clean environment. The interdisciplinary subject matter will appeal to scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics. It is also useful to those developing new processes for other applications, and references given at the end of each chapter provide links to the wider body of SCF literature. The book is organized with topics progressing from the fundamental nature of the supercritical state, through process conditions and materials interactions, to economic considerations. Practical examples are included to show how the technology has been successfully applied. The first four chapters consider principles governing SCF processing, detailing issues such as solubility, design for cleanability, and the dynamics of particle removal. The next three chapters discuss surfactants and microemulsions, SCF interaction with polymers, and the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a cleaning solvent. The closing chapters focus on more practical considerations such as scaleup, equipment costs, and financial analysis.