Superior Beings

Author: Steven J. Brams
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475718071
Format: PDF
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The central question I pose in this book is: If there existed a supe rior being who possessed the supernatural qualities of omni science, omnipotence, immortality, and incomprehensibility, how would he/she act differently from us, and would these differences be knowable? (ßecause God, the superior being in the Judeo Christian tradition, is generally described as a male, I shall hence forth use the masculine pronoun form for convenience, but I intend no invidious gender distinctions, whether applied to super natural or natural beings.l Theologians, philosophers of religion, and erudite scholars in other disciplines have addressed this and related questions before, but their answers, generally speaking, have not been informed by any systematic or rigorous theory. I believe the mathematical theory of games, which has little to do with the frivolity and playfulness we normally associate with games, provides a powerful tool for clarifying the key theo logical concepts in my central question and drawing out their implications in games played between human and superior beings. I am fully aware that not everybody will agree that omni science, omnipotence, immortality, and incomprehensibility are what I say they are, but I invite them to propose their own defi- Preface viii nitions and derive their own conclusions with the aid of the theory. By endowing these protean concepts with unambiguous meanings, I will try to show how game theory can breathe life into questions that have been dismissed too quickly simply because they are metaphysical-outside the world of experience.

The Probability of God

Author: Dr. Stephen D. Unwin
Publisher: Crown Forum
ISBN: 1400097541
Format: PDF
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Does God exist? This is probably the most debated question in the history of mankind. Scholars, scientists, and philosophers have spent their lifetimes trying to prove or disprove the existence of God, only to have their theories crucified by other scholars, scientists, and philosophers. Where the debate breaks down is in the ambiguities and colloquialisms of language. But, by using a universal, unambiguous language—namely, mathematics—can this question finally be answered definitively? That’s what Dr. Stephen Unwin attempts to do in this riveting, accessible, and witty book, The Probability of God. At its core, this groundbreaking book reveals how a math equation developed more than 200 years ago by noted European philosopher Thomas Bayes can be used to calculate the probability that God exists. The equation itself is much more complicated than a simple coin toss (heads, He’s up there running the show; tails, He’s not). Yet Dr. Unwin writes with a clarity that makes his mathematical proof easy for even the nonmathematician to understand and a verve that makes his book a delight to read. Leading you carefully through each step in his argument, he demonstrates in the end that God does indeed exist. Whether you’re a devout believer and agree with Dr. Unwin’s proof or are unsure about all things divine, you will find this provocative book enlightening and engaging. From the Hardcover edition.

Between Literature and Science

Author: Peter Swirski
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
ISBN: 0773568379
Format: PDF, Docs
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Through close analysis of Eureka and The Purloined Letter, Swirski evaluates Poe's epistemological theses in the light of contemporary philosophy of science and presents literary interpretation as a cooperative game played by the author and reader, thereby illuminating how we read fiction. The analysis of Poe's little-studied Eureka provides the basis for his discussion of Lem's critique of scientific reductionism and futurological forecasts. Drawing on his own interviews with Lem as well as analysis of his works, Swirski considers the author's scenarios involving computers capable of creative acts and discusses their socio-cultural implications. His analysis leads to bold arguments about the nature of literature and its relation to a broad range of other disciplines.

Topics in Mathematical Economics and Game Theory

Author: Robert J. Aumann
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821805251
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Since the publication of Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by von Neumann and Morgenstern, the concept of games has played an increasing role in economics. It also plays a role of growing importance in other sciences, including biology, political science, and psychology. Many scientists have made seminal advances and continue to be leaders in the field, including Harsanyi, Shapley, Shubik, and Selten. Professor Robert Aumann, in addition to his important contributions to game theory and economics, made a number of significant contributions to mathematics. This volume provides a collection of essays in mathematical economics and game theory, including cutting-edge research on noncooperative game theory and its foundations, bargaining theory, and general equilibrium theory. Also included is a reprint of Aumann's classic paper, ``Acceptable Points in General Cooperative $n$-Person Games'' and of the oft-cited, yet hard to find, paper by Maschler, ``The Worth of a Cooperative Enterprise to Each Member''. This book illustrates the wide range of applications of mathematics to economics, game theory, and social choice. The volume is dedicated to Professor Robert J. Aumann, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, for his contributions in mathematics and social sciences.

Comparing Voting Systems

Author: Hannu Nurmi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940093985X
Format: PDF, ePub
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In many contexts of everyday life we find ourselves faced with the problem of reconciling the views of several persons. These problems are usually solved by resorting to some opinion aggre gating procedure, like voting. Very often the problem is thought of as being solved after the decision to take a vote has been made and the ballots have been counted. Most official decision making bodies have formally instituted procedures of voting but in informal groups such procedures are typically chosen in casu. Curiously enough people do not seem to pay much attention to which particular procedure is being resorted to as long as some kind of voting takes place. As we shall see shortly the procedure being used often makes a great difference to the voting outcomes. Thus, the Question arises as to which voting procedure is best. This book is devoted to a discussion of this problem in the light of various criteria of optimality. We shall deal with a number of procedures that have been proposed for use or are actually in use in voting contexts. The aim of this book is to give an evaluation of the virtues and shortcomings of these procedures. On the basis of this evaluation the reader will hopefully be able to determine which procedure is optimal for the decision setting that he or she has in mind.

Divine Games

Author: Steven J. Brams
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262347806
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A game-theoretical analysis of interactions between a human being and an omnipotent and omniscient godlike being highlights the inherent unknowability of the latter's superiority. In Divine Games, Steven Brams analyzes games that a human being might play with an omnipotent and omniscient godlike being. Drawing on game theory and his own theory of moves, Brams combines the analysis of thorny theological questions, suggested by Pascal's wager (which considers the rewards and penalties associated with belief or nonbelief in God) and Newcomb's problem (in which a godlike being has near omniscience) with the analysis of several stories from the Hebrew Bible. Almost all of these stories involve conflict between God or a surrogate and a human player; their representation as games raises fundamental questions about God's superiority. In some games God appears vulnerable (after Adam and Eve eat the forbidden fruit in defiance of His command), in other games his actions seem morally dubious (when He subjects Abraham and Job to extreme tests of their faith), and in still other games He has a propensity to hold grudges (in preventing Moses from entering the Promised Land and in undermining the kingship of Saul). If the behavior of a superior being is indistinguishable from that of an ordinary human being, his existence would appear undecidable, or inherently unknowable. Consequently, Brams argues that keeping an open mind about the existence of a superior being is an appropriate theological stance.

Tsongkhapa s Praise for Dependent Relativity

Author: Je Tsongkhapa
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 086171721X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), the author of The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment and the teacher of the First Dalai Lama, is renowned as one of the greatest scholar-saints that Tibet has ever produced. He composed his poetic Praise for Dependent Relativity the very morning that he abandoned confusion and attained the final view, the clear realization of emptiness that is the essence of wisdom. English monk Graham Woodhouse, a longtime student of Buddhism, was living near the Dalai Lama's residence in northern India when he translated Tsongkhapa's celebrated text, and he conveys for modern readers the explanation of it he received from his teacher, the late Venerable Lobsang Gyatso.

The Human Computer

Author: Dr.Anthony Scheiber
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 1475902913
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Human Computer: Get The Most Out of Yours is a book that will radically change the course of technology and medicine, and affect the entire spectrum of human relationships across the globe. The Human Computer draws unprecedented and critical parallels between the human brain and the desktop computer. This book will touch and affect the lives of everyone on the planet, now and into the foreseeable future. How men and women think and approach life's problems is explained. Why teens struggle so much with their parents becomes exceedingly clear. The differences that have plagued relationships between men and women since antiquity are revealed. The Human Computer challenges many of the ancient and flawed paradigms that have been the cornerstones of society and scientific knowledge since antiquity. It is vitally important you read this book, to prepare for a new age of enlightenment. Understand what your Human Computer is all take advantage of it in your career, your life's goals, your search for fortune...take advantage of its power in that you can get the most out of yours.... The clock is ticking and time may be running out.