Surfaces in Classical Geometries

Author: Gary R. Jensen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319270761
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Designed for intermediate graduate studies, this text will broaden students' core knowledge of differential geometry providing foundational material to relevant topics in classical differential geometry. The method of moving frames, a natural means for discovering and proving important results, provides the basis of treatment for topics discussed. Its application in many areas helps to connect the various geometries and to uncover many deep relationships, such as the Lawson correspondence. The nearly 300 problems and exercises range from simple applications to open problems. Exercises are embedded in the text as essential parts of the exposition. Problems are collected at the end of each chapter; solutions to select problems are given at the end of the book. Mathematica®, MatlabTM, and Xfig are used to illustrate selected concepts and results. The careful selection of results serves to show the reader how to prove the most important theorems in the subject, which may become the foundation of future progress. The book pursues significant results beyond the standard topics of an introductory differential geometry course. A sample of these results includes the Willmore functional, the classification of cyclides of Dupin, the Bonnet problem, constant mean curvature immersions, isothermic immersions, and the duality between minimal surfaces in Euclidean space and constant mean curvature surfaces in hyperbolic space. The book concludes with Lie sphere geometry and its spectacular result that all cyclides of Dupin are Lie sphere equivalent. The exposition is restricted to curves and surfaces in order to emphasize the geometric interpretation of invariants and other constructions. Working in low dimensions helps students develop a strong geometric intuition. Aspiring geometers will acquire a working knowledge of curves and surfaces in classical geometries. Students will learn the invariants of conformal geometry and how these relate to the invariants of Euclidean, spherical, and hyperbolic geometry. They will learn the fundamentals of Lie sphere geometry, which require the notion of Legendre immersions of a contact structure. Prerequisites include a completed one semester standard course on manifold theory.

Tensors

Author: J. M. Landsberg
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821869078
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Tensors are ubiquitous in the sciences. The geometry of tensors is both a powerful tool for extracting information from data sets, and a beautiful subject in its own right. This book has three intended uses: a classroom textbook, a reference work for researchers in the sciences, and an account of classical and modern results in (aspects of) the theory that will be of interest to researchers in geometry. For classroom use, there is a modern introduction to multilinear algebra and to the geometry and representation theory needed to study tensors, including a large number of exercises. For researchers in the sciences, there is information on tensors in table format for easy reference and a summary of the state of the art in elementary language. This is the first book containing many classical results regarding tensors. Particular applications treated in the book include the complexity of matrix multiplication, P versus NP, signal processing, phylogenetics, and algebraic statistics. For geometers, there is material on secant varieties, G-varieties, spaces with finitely many orbits and how these objects arise in applications, discussions of numerous open questions in geometry arising in applications, and expositions of advanced topics such as the proof of the Alexander-Hirschowitz theorem and of the Weyman-Kempf method for computing syzygies.

Lectures on Differential Geometry

Author: S S Chern
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9813102985
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book is a translation of an authoritative introductory text based on a lecture series delivered by the renowned differential geometer, Professor S S Chern in Beijing University in 1980. The original Chinese text, authored by Professor Chern and Professor Wei-Huan Chen, was a unique contribution to the mathematics literature, combining simplicity and economy of approach with depth of contents. The present translation is aimed at a wide audience, including (but not limited to) advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, as well as physicists interested in the diverse applications of differential geometry to physics. In addition to a thorough treatment of the fundamentals of manifold theory, exterior algebra, the exterior calculus, connections on fiber bundles, Riemannian geometry, Lie groups and moving frames, and complex manifolds (with a succinct introduction to the theory of Chern classes), and an appendix on the relationship between differential geometry and theoretical physics, this book includes a new chapter on Finsler geometry and a new appendix on the history and recent developments of differential geometry, the latter prepared specially for this edition by Professor Chern to bring the text into perspectives.

Differential Geometry of Manifolds

Author: Stephen T. Lovett
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439865469
Format: PDF
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From the coauthor of Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, this companion book presents the extension of differential geometry from curves and surfaces to manifolds in general. It provides a broad introduction to the field of differentiable and Riemannian manifolds, tying together the classical and modern formulations. The three appendices provide background information on point set topology, calculus of variations, and multilinear algebra—topics that may not have been covered in the prerequisite courses of multivariable calculus and linear algebra. Differential Geometry of Manifolds takes a practical approach, containing extensive exercises and focusing on applications of differential geometry in physics, including the Hamiltonian formulation of dynamics (with a view toward symplectic manifolds), the tensorial formulation of electromagnetism, some string theory, and some fundamental concepts in general relativity.

Basic Noncommutative Geometry

Author: Masoud Khalkhali
Publisher: European Mathematical Society
ISBN: 9783037190616
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"Basic Noncommutative Geometry provides an introduction to noncommutative geometry and some of its applications. The book can be used either as a textbook for a graduate course on the subject or for self-study. It will be useful for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and theoretical physics and all those who are interested in gaining an understanding of the subject. One feature of this book is the wealth of examples and exercises that help the reader to navigate through the subject. While background material is provided in the text and in several appendices, some familiarity with basic notions of functional analysis, algebraic topology, differential geometry and homological algebra at a first year graduate level is helpful. Developed by Alain Connes since the late 1970s, noncommutative geometry has found many applications to long-standing conjectures in topology and geometry and has recently made headways in theoretical physics and number theory. The book starts with a detailed description of some of the most pertinent algebra-geometry correspondences by casting geometric notions in algebraic terms, then proceeds in the second chapter to the idea of a noncommutative space and how it is constructed. The last two chapters deal with homological tools: cyclic cohomology and Connes-Chern characters in K-theory and K-homology, culminating in one commutative diagram expressing the equality of topological and analytic index in a noncommutative setting. Applications to integrality of noncommutative topological invariants are given as well."--Publisher's description.

Geometry and Topology

Author: Miles Reid
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521848893
Format: PDF, Docs
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Geometry provides a whole range of views on the universe, serving as the inspiration, technical toolkit and ultimate goal for many branches of mathematics and physics. This book introduces the ideas of geometry, and includes a generous supply of simple explanations and examples. The treatment emphasises coordinate systems and the coordinate changes that generate symmetries. The discussion moves from Euclidean to non-Euclidean geometries, including spherical and hyperbolic geometry, and then on to affine and projective linear geometries. Group theory is introduced to treat geometric symmetries, leading to the unification of geometry and group theory in the Erlangen program. An introduction to basic topology follows, with the Möbius strip, the Klein bottle and the surface with g handles exemplifying quotient topologies and the homeomorphism problem. Topology combines with group theory to yield the geometry of transformation groups,having applications to relativity theory and quantum mechanics. A final chapter features historical discussions and indications for further reading. With minimal prerequisites, the book provides a first glimpse of many research topics in modern algebra, geometry and theoretical physics. The book is based on many years' teaching experience, and is thoroughly class-tested. There are copious illustrations, and each chapter ends with a wide supply of exercises. Further teaching material is available for teachers via the web, including assignable problem sheets with solutions.

An Introduction to Riemannian Geometry

Author: Leonor Godinho
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319086669
Format: PDF
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Unlike many other texts on differential geometry, this textbook also offers interesting applications to geometric mechanics and general relativity. The first part is a concise and self-contained introduction to the basics of manifolds, differential forms, metrics and curvature. The second part studies applications to mechanics and relativity including the proofs of the Hawking and Penrose singularity theorems. It can be independently used for one-semester courses in either of these subjects. The main ideas are illustrated and further developed by numerous examples and over 300 exercises. Detailed solutions are provided for many of these exercises, making An Introduction to Riemannian Geometry ideal for self-study.

Noncommutative Geometry and Particle Physics

Author: Walter van Suijlekom
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401791627
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book provides an introduction to noncommutative geometry and presents a number of its recent applications to particle physics. It is intended for graduate students in mathematics/theoretical physics who are new to the field of noncommutative geometry, as well as for researchers in mathematics/theoretical physics with an interest in the physical applications of noncommutative geometry. In the first part, we introduce the main concepts and techniques by studying finite noncommutative spaces, providing a “light” approach to noncommutative geometry. We then proceed with the general framework by defining and analyzing noncommutative spin manifolds and deriving some main results on them, such as the local index formula. In the second part, we show how noncommutative spin manifolds naturally give rise to gauge theories, applying this principle to specific examples. We subsequently geometrically derive abelian and non-abelian Yang-Mills gauge theories, and eventually the full Standard Model of particle physics, and conclude by explaining how noncommutative geometry might indicate how to proceed beyond the Standard Model.

Logic and Structure

Author: Dirk van Dalen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662029626
Format: PDF, Kindle
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New corrected printing of a well-established text on logic at the introductory level.