Suspect Identities

Author: Simon A. COLE
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674029682
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"Cole excavates the forgotten and hidden history of criminal identification--from photography to exotic anthropometric systems based on measuring body parts, from fingerprinting to DNA typing"--Jacket.

National Identification Systems

Author: Carl Watner
Publisher: McFarland
ISBN: 9780786415953
Format: PDF
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Throughout history, governments have sought more efficient ways to count, tax, allocate, monitor and order the activities of their citizens. Watner and McElroy have compiled a collection of essays that present the historical, religious, moral and practical arguments against government enumeration. The articles look at several government naming practices and the census and discuss how the collection of seemingly innocent data could be used to commit abuses. Section one recounts the history of what we now call national ID. Section two covers contemporary technologies, such as microchips, email tracking and camera-based surveillance systems, applying to each the test, "How would this catch terrorists or other criminals without destroying the rights of peaceable people?" Section three imagines a future of rebellion against a government tracking its citizens in the name of security, but offers some hope that American culture does not lend itself to the fanatical control that a high-tech national ID system could make possible.

Truth Machine

Author: Michael Lynch
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226498089
Format: PDF, Docs
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DNA profiling—commonly known as DNA fingerprinting—is often heralded as unassailable criminal evidence, a veritable “truth machine” that can overturn convictions based on eyewitness testimony, confessions, and other forms of forensic evidence. But DNA evidence is far from infallible. Truth Machine traces the controversial history of DNA fingerprinting by looking at court cases in the United States and United Kingdom beginning in the mid-1980s, when the practice was invented, and continuing until the present. Ultimately, Truth Machine presents compelling evidence of the obstacles and opportunities at the intersection of science, technology, sociology, and law.

Expert Evidence and Scientific Proof in Criminal Trials

Author: Paul Roberts
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 135156739X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Forensic science evidence and expert witness testimony play an increasingly prominent role in modern criminal proceedings. Science produces powerful evidence of criminal offending, but has also courted controversy and sometimes contributed towards miscarriages of justice. The twenty-six articles and essays reproduced in this volume explore the theoretical foundations of modern scientific proof and critically consider the practical issues to which expert evidence gives rise in contemporary criminal trials. The essays are prefaced by a substantial new introduction which provides an overview and incisive commentary contextualising the key debates. The volume begins by placing ?forensic science? in interdisciplinary focus, with contributions from historical, sociological, Science and Technology Studies (STS), philosophical and jurisprudential perspectives. This is followed by closer examination of the role of forensic science and other expert evidence in criminal proceedings, exposing enduring tensions and addressing recent controversies in the relationship between science and criminal law. A third set of contributions considers the practical challenges of interpreting and communicating forensic science evidence. This perennial battle continues to be fought at the intersection between the logic of scientific inference and the psychology of the fact-finder?s ?common sense? reasoning. Finally, the volume?s fourth group of essays evaluates the (limited) success of existing procedural reforms aimed at improving the reception of expert testimony in criminal adjudication, and considers future prospects for institutional renewal - with a keen eye to comparative law models and experiences, success stories and cautionary tales.

Handbook of Criminal Investigation

Author: Tim Newburn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136308237
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book provides the most comprehensive and authoritative book yet published on the subject of criminal investigation, a rapidly developing area within the police and other law enforcement agencies, and an important sub discipline within police studies. The subject is rarely out of the headlines, and there is widespread media interest in criminal investigation. Within the police rapid strides are being made in the direction of professionalizing the criminal investigation process, and it has been a particular focus as a means of improving police performance. A number of important reports have been published in the last few years, highlighting the importance of the criminal investigation process not only to the work of the police but to public confidence in this. Each of these reports has identified shortcomings in the way criminal investigations have been conducted, and has made recommendations for improvement . The Handbook of Criminal Investigation provides a rigorous and critical approach to not only the process of criminal investigation, but also the context in which this takes place, the theory underlying it, and the variety of factors which influence approaches to it. It will be an indispensable source of reference for anybody with an interest in, and needing to know about, criminal investigation. Contributors to the book are drawn from both practitioners in the field and academics.

Biometric State

Author: Keith Breckenridge
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316123944
Format: PDF
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Biometric identification and registration systems are being proposed by governments and businesses across the world. Surprisingly they are under most rapid, and systematic, development in countries in Africa and Asia. In this groundbreaking book, Keith Breckenridge traces how the origins of the systems being developed in places like India, Mexico, Nigeria and Ghana can be found in a century-long history of biometric government in South Africa, with the South African experience of centralized fingerprint identification unparalleled in its chronological depth and demographic scope. He shows how empire, and particularly the triangular relationship between India, the Witwatersrand and Britain, established the special South African obsession with biometric government, and shaped the international politics that developed around it for the length of the twentieth century. He also examines the political effects of biometric registration systems, revealing their consequences for the basic workings of the institutions of democracy and authoritarianism.

Fantasies of Identification

Author: Ellen Samuels
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479821373
Format: PDF, Docs
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In the mid-nineteenth-century United States, as it became increasingly difficult to distinguish between bodies understood as black, white, or Indian; able-bodied or disabled; and male or female, intense efforts emerged to define these identities as biologically distinct and scientifically verifiable in a literally marked body. Combining literary analysis, legal history, and visual culture, Ellen Samuels traces the evolution of the “fantasy of identification”—the powerful belief that embodied social identities are fixed, verifiable, and visible through modern science. From birthmarks and fingerprints to blood quantum and DNA, she examines how this fantasy has circulated between cultural representations, law, science, and policy to become one of the most powerfully institutionalized ideologies of modern society. Yet, as Samuels demonstrates, in every case, the fantasy distorts its claimed scientific basis, substituting subjective language for claimed objective fact. From its early emergence in discourses about disability fakery and fugitive slaves in the nineteenth century to its most recent manifestation in the question of sex testing at the 2012 Olympic Games, Fantasies of Identification explores the roots of modern understandings of bodily identity.

Our Biometric Future

Author: Kelly A. Gates
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814732798
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Since the 1960s, a significant effort has been underway to program computers to “see” the human face—to develop automated systems for identifying faces and distinguishing them from one another—commonly known as Facial Recognition Technology. While computer scientists are developing FRT in order to design more intelligent and interactive machines, businesses and states agencies view the technology as uniquely suited for “smart” surveillance—systems that automate the labor of monitoring in order to increase their efficacy and spread their reach. Tracking this technological pursuit, Our Biometric Future identifies FRT as a prime example of the failed technocratic approach to governance, where new technologies are pursued as shortsighted solutions to complex social problems. Culling news stories, press releases, policy statements, PR kits and other materials, Kelly Gates provides evidence that, instead of providing more security for more people, the pursuit of FRT is being driven by the priorities of corporations, law enforcement and state security agencies, all convinced of the technology’s necessity and unhindered by its complicated and potentially destructive social consequences. By focusing on the politics of developing and deploying these technologies, Our Biometric Future argues not for the inevitability of a particular technological future, but for its profound contingency and contestability.

Suspect Families

Author: Torsten Heinemann
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1472424263
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Suspect Families is the first book to investigate the social, political, and ethical implications of parental testing for family reunification in immigration cases. Drawing on policy documents, legal frameworks, case study material and interviews with representatives of governmental and non-governmental organisation and immigration authorities, immigration lawyers, geneticists and applicants for family reunification, the book analyses the different political regimes and social arrangements in which DNA analysis is adopted for decision-making on family reunification in three distinct European countries: Austria, Finland and Germany. Interdisciplinary in scope, the book reconstructs the processes, institutional logic and the political and administrative practices of DNA testing from a comparative perspective, combining theoretical conceptualisation with detailed empirical work to explore the central societal, political and ethical issues raised by the use of DNA profiling in the context of immigration policy. A ground-breaking study of the role played by new technologies in migration decisions, Suspect Families will appeal to scholars of sociology, political science, science and technology studies and surveillance studies.

A Guide to Forensic Testimony

Author: Fred Chris Smith
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional
ISBN: 9780201752793
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A technical expert and a lawyer provide practical approaches for IT professionals who need to get up to speed on the role of an expert witness and how testimony works. Includes actual transcripts and case studies.