Sustainable Urban Transport Financing from the Sidewalk to the Subway

Author: Arturo Ardila-Gomez
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464807574
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Urban transport systems are essential for economic development and improving citizens' quality of life. To establish high-quality and affordable transport systems, cities must ensure their financial sustainability to fund new investments in infrastructure while also funding maintenance and operation of existing facilities and services. However, many cities in developing countries are stuck in an "underfunding trap" for urban transport, in which large up-front investments are needed for new transport infrastructure that will improve the still small-scale, and perhaps, poor-quality systems, but revenue is insufficient to cover maintenance and operation expenses, let alone new investment projects. The urban transport financing gap in these cities is further widened by the implicit subsidies for the use of private cars, which represent a minority of trips but contribute huge costs in terms of congestion, sprawl, accidents, and pollution. Using an analytical framework based on the concept of "Who Benefits Pays," 24 types of financing instruments are assessed in terms of their social, economic and environmental impacts and their ability to fund urban transport capital investments, operational expenses, and maintenance. Urban transport financing needs to be based on an appropriate mix of complementary financing instruments. In particular for capital investments, a combination of grants †“from multiple levels of government†“ and loans together with investments through public private partnerships could finance large projects that benefit society. Moreover, the property tax emerges as a key financing instrument for capital, operation, and maintenance expenses. By choosing the most appropriate mix of financing instruments and focusing on wise investments, cities can design comprehensive financing for all types of urban transport projects, using multi-level innovative revenue sources that promote efficient pricing schemes, increase overall revenue, strengthen sustainable transport, and cover capital investments, operation, and maintenance for all parts of a public transport system, "from the sidewalk to the subway."

Financing Africa s Cities

Author: Thierry Paulais
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821389483
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume addresses the issues of financing urban growth of the African continent -- which has the highest urban growth rate on the planet -- in the next decades. Considerable investment will be needed to sustain this level of growth and to clear up accumulated backlogs. At the same time, decentralization has resulted in increased responsibilities for local government; but in most cases, institutional reforms were carried out without the transfer of a sufficient level of resources, and local capacities in governance and project management are weak. Which mechanisms will finance these extensive needs, and how will African local governments meet these needs? Specifics on how to finance African cities have not been studied. The actual scale of this market has not been fully grasped. A systemic approach to this market is difficult because of its diversity (country size; institutional context; characteristics of urban network; availability of capital market, currency, etc.) and a lack of data. Donors’ assistance methods in the sector are disparate, marked by disputes between different schools of thought; special-purpose vehicles created by donors operate according to a variety of methods and with wide-ranging and sparsely disseminated results. What is the best way to transform these systems, often antiquated in many respects, into modern financing systems that facilitate access to domestic markets, mobilize local savings and reinforce local government autonomy? There is no single answer to this question in regard to such a variety of institutional and economic contexts. The main objective of the study is to clarify the debates and to enlighten the choices of African decision-makers at local and national level.

Climate Change and Cities

Author: Cynthia Rosenzweig
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316944565
Format: PDF
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The Urban Climate Change Research Network's Second Assessment Report on Climate Change in Cities (ARC3.2) is the second in a series of global, science-based reports to examine climate risk, adaptation, and mitigation efforts in cities. The book explicitly seeks to explore the implications of changing climatic conditions on critical urban physical and social infrastructure sectors and intersectoral concerns. The primary purpose of ARC3.2 is to inform the development and implementation of effective urban climate change policies, leveraging ongoing and planned investments for populations in cities of developing, emerging, and developed countries. This volume, like its predecessor, will be invaluable for a range of audiences involved with climate change and cities: mayors, city officials and policymakers; urban planners; policymakers charged with developing climate change mitigation and adaptation programs; and a broad spectrum of researchers and advanced students in the environmental sciences.

The Urban Rail Development Handbook

Author: Daniel Pulido
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 146481273X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Cities across the globe are looking to develop affordable, environmentally friendly, and socially responsible transportation solutions that can meet the accessibility needs of expanding metropolitan populations and support future economic and urban development. When appropriately planned and properly implemented as part of a larger public transportation network, urban rail systems can provide rapid mobility and vital access to city centers from surrounding districts. High-performing urban rail services, when carefully approached as development projects, can help enhance quality of life by giving citizens access to employment opportunities, essential services, urban amenities, and neighboring communities. The purpose of this Handbook is to synthesize and disseminate knowledge to inform the planning, implementation, and operations of urban rail projects with a view towards: -- Emphasizing the need for early studies and project planning; -- Making projects more sustainable (economically, socially, and environmentally); -- Improving socioeconomic returns and access to opportunities for users; -- Maximizing the value of private participation, where appropriate; and -- Building capacity within project implementing and managing institutions This Handbook provides experiential advice to tackle the technical, institutional, and financial challenges faced by decision makers considering urban rail projects. It brings together the expertise of World Bank staff and the input of numerous specialists to synthesize international 'good practices' and recommendations that are independent of commercial, financial political, or other interests. The material presented is intended as an honest-broker guide to maximize the impact and manage the challenges of urban rail systems in cities in both developed and developing countries. Rather than identify a single approach, this Handbook acknowledges the complexities and context necessary when approaching an urban rail development by helping to prepare decision makers to ask the right questions, consider the key issues, perform the necessary studies, apply adequate tools, and learn from international good practice all at the right time in the project development process.

Financing Transit Oriented Development with Land Values

Author: Hiroaki Suzuki
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464801509
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book provides cities with strategies and methodologies for applying land value capture financing schemes for capital-intensive transit and transit-related investments, based on the successful experiences of Mass Transit Railway Corporation in Hong Kong SAR, China, and Japanese railway companies in Tokyo metropolitan areas.

Tapping the Markets

Author: The World Bank Group
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464801355
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This report analyzes domestic provision of safe water and improved sanitation to the poor in Bangladesh, Benin, Cambodia, Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania, highlighting demand and supply factors and the commercial and policy constraints that face local enterprises supplying it.

Concentrating Solar Power in Developing Countries

Author: Natalia Kulichenko
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821396080
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Concentrating solar thermal technologies have a clear potential for scaling up renewable energy at the utility level, thereby diversifying the generation portfolio mix, powering development, and mitigating climate change. The report analyzes current experience in designing and implementing regulatory frameworks supporting the technology

Turning the Right Corner

Author: Andreas Kopp
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821398350
Format: PDF, Docs
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Transport provides access to public services for the poor, opens up trade opportunities, and maximizes thebenefits of urbanization: the mobility of people and goods drives development. So how can we protect therole of transport in times of scarcer fuels, costly and harmful carbon emissions, and the rising threat ofextreme weather events? This is the central question that this book seeks to answer.Turning the Right Corner: Ensuring Development through a Low-Carbon Transport Sector finds that adoptingnew vehicle technologies and alternative fuels will not be enough to curb greenhouse gas emissions fromtransport: new patterns of mobility will also be needed. In developing countries where past infrastructureinvestments have not yet locked in particular transport modes, there is an opportunity to contain emissionsby harnessing low-emission modes of transport. The book argues that the transition to low-carbon mobilityis not only urgently needed if economies are to avoid becoming locked into high-carbon growth, but is alsoaffordable. It outlines how countries can combine policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with broadersector reforms that generate new fiscal resources to finance the transition in addition to carbon financingand international assistance.Turning the Right Corner: Ensuring Development through a Low-Carbon Transport Sector will be of interest topolicy makers, academics, and development practitioners with an interest in transport. It will help decisionmakers better understand how to contain the transport sector's contribution to climate change and protecttransport infrastructure and services from severe weather events.

Municipal Finances

Author: Catherine D. Farvacque-Vitkovic
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821399144
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book tells a fascinating story on municipal finances for local government practitioners with rich examples, global practices, and good and bad experiences the authors gained in decades of field work.