Crystallography and the World of Symmetry

Author: Sanat K. Chatterjee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 354069899X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Symmetry exists in realms from crystals to patterns, in external shapes of living or non-living objects, as well as in the fundamental particles and the physical laws that govern them. In fact, the search for this symmetry is the driving force for the discovery of many fundamental particles and the formulation of many physical laws. While one can not imagine a world which is absolutely symmetrical nor can one a world which is absolutely asymmetrical. These two aspects of nature are intermingled with each other inseparably. This is the basis of the existence of aperiodicity manifested in the liquid crystals and also quasi-crystals also discussed in “Crystallography and the World of Symmetry”.

Symmetry in Crystallography

Author: Paolo Radaelli
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199550654
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A fresh approach to teaching crystallographic symmetry. Rather than being swamped by heavy algebraic notation, the reader is taken through a series of simple and beautiful examples from the visual arts, and taught how to analyse them employing the 'pictorial' diagrams used in the International Tables of Crystallography.

Symmetry of Crystals and Molecules

Author: Mark Ladd
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199670889
Format: PDF, Mobi
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An eminently readable book on the symmetry of crystals and molecules, starting from first principles

Site Symmetry in Crystals

Author: Robert A. Evarestov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642974422
Format: PDF, ePub
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The history of applications of space group theory to solid state physics goes back more than five decades. The periodicity of the lattice and the definition of a k-space were the corner-stones of this application. Prof. Volker Heine in Vol. 35 of Solid State Physics (1980) noted that, even in perfect crystals, where k-space methods are appropriate, the local properties (such as the charge densi ty, bond order, etc.) are defined by the local environment of one atom. Natural ly, "k-space methods" are not appropriate for crystals with point defects, sur faces and interfaces, or for amorphous materials. In such cases the real-space approach favored by chemists to describe molecules has turned out to be very useful. To span the gulf between the k-space and real space methods it is helpful to recall that atoms in crystalline solids possess a site symmetry defined by the symmetry of the local environment of the atom occupying the site. The site symmetry concept is familiar to crystallographers and commonly used by them in the description of crystalline structures. However, in the application of group theory to solid state physics problems, the site symmetry approach has been used only for the last ten to fifteen years. In our book Methods oj Group Theory in the Quantum Chemistry oj Solids published in Russian in 1987 by Leningrad University Press we gave the first results of this application to the theory of electronic structure of crystals.

Symmetry Spectroscopy and Crystallography

Author: Robert Glaser
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527337490
Format: PDF, Docs
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Written in a clear and understandable manner, this book provides a comprehensive, yet non-mathematical, treatment of the topic, covering the basic principles of symmetry and the important spectroscopic techniques used to probe molecular structure. The chapters are extensively illustrated and deal with such topics as symmetry elements, operations and descriptors, symmetry guidelines, high-fidelity pseudosymmetry, crystallographic symmetry, molecular gears, and experimental techniques, including X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. As an additional feature, 3D animations of most of the structures and molecules covered are available online at wiley.com. As a result, chemists learn how to understand and predict molecular structures and reactivity. Authored by a renowned expert with numerous publications and an excellent track record in research and teaching, this is a useful source for graduate students and researchers working in the field of organic synthesis, physical chemistry, biochemistry, and crystallography, while equally serving as supplementary reading for courses on stereochemistry, organic synthesis, or crystallography.

International Tables for Crystallography Volume B

Author: Uri Shmueli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402082054
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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International Tables for Crystallography are no longer available for purchase from Springer. For further information please contact Wiley Inc. (follow the link on the right hand side of this page). Volume B presents accounts of the numerous aspects of reciprocal space in crystallographic research. After an introductory chapter, Part 1 presents the reader with an account of structure-factor formalisms, an extensive treatment of the theory, algorithms and crystallographic applications of Fourier methods, and fundamental as well as advanced treatments of symmetry in reciprocal space. In Part 2, these general accounts are followed by detailed expositions of crystallographic statistics, the theory of direct methods, Patterson techniques, isomorphous replacement and anomalous scattering, and treatments of the role of electron microscopy and diffraction in crystal structure determination, including applications of direct methods to electron crystallography. Part 3 deals with applications of reciprocal space to molecular geometry and `best'-plane calculations, and contains a treatment of the principles of molecular graphics and modelling and their applications. A convergence-acceleration method of importance in the computation of approximate lattice sums is presented and the part concludes with a discussion of the Ewald method. Part 4 contains treatments of various diffuse-scattering phenomena arising from crystal dynamics, disorder and low dimensionality (liquid crystals), and an exposition of the underlying theories and/or experimental evidence. Polymer crystallography and reciprocal-space images of aperiodic crystals are also treated. Part 5 of the volume contains introductory treatments of the theory of the interaction of radiation with matter (dynamical theory) as applied to X-ray, electron and neutron diffraction techniques. The simplified trigonometric expressions for the structure factors in the 230 three-dimensional space groups, which appeared in Volume I of International Tables for X-ray Crystallography, are now given in Appendix 1.4.3 to Chapter 1.4 of this volume. Volume B is a vital addition to the library of scientists engaged in crystal structure determination, crystallographic computing, crystal physics and other fields of crystallographic research. Graduate students specializing in crystallography will find much material suitable for self-study and a rich source of references to the relevant literature.

Fundamentals of Crystallography

Author: Carmelo Giacovazzo
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780198509585
Format: PDF, Docs
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Crystallography and structure theory have recently received increasing interest due to their role in understanding biological structures, high-temperature superconductors, and effects on mineral properties related to changes in temperature and pressure. This text offers an account of the wide range of crystallography in various branches of science.The fundamentals, the most frequently used procedures, and experimental techniques are all described, and a number of appendices are devoted to more specialist aspects. The book is an updated edition with emphasis on the range of topical applications. Illustrations should help to clarify the subject matter. To provide a better understanding of the basics of crystallography, a compact disk has been added to this edition, offering the facilities of modern graphics to simulate experiments, show complex images, and provide a number of exercises.

Protein Crystallography

Author: Eaton E. Lattman
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 0801888069
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The proteome remains a mysterious realm. Researchers have determined the structures of only a small fraction of the proteins encoded by the human genome. Crystallography continues to be the primary method used to determine the structures of the remaining unknown proteins. This imaging technique uses the diffraction of X-rays to determine a protein's three-dimensional molecular structure. Drawing on years of research and teaching experience, Eaton E. Lattman and Patrick J. Loll use clear examples and abundant illustrations to provide a concise and accessible primer on protein crystallography. Discussing the basics of diffraction, the behavior of two- and three-dimensional crystals, phase determination (including MIR and MAD phasing and molecular replacement), the Patterson function, and refinement, Lattman and Loll provide a complete overview of this important technique, illuminated by physical insights. The crisp writing style and simple illustrations will provide beginner crystallographers with a guide to the process of unraveling protein structure.