System Dynamics Modeling with R

Author: Jim Duggan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319340433
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This new interdisciplinary work presents system dynamics as a powerful approach to enable analysts build simulation models of social systems, with a view toward enhancing decision making. Grounded in the feedback perspective of complex systems, the book provides a practical introduction to system dynamics, and covers key concepts such as stocks, flows, and feedback. Societal challenges such as predicting the impact of an emerging infectious disease, estimating population growth, and assessing the capacity of health services to cope with demographic change can all benefit from the application of computer simulation. This text explains important building blocks of the system dynamics approach, including material delays, stock management heuristics, and how to model effects between different systemic elements. Models from epidemiology, health systems, and economics are presented to illuminate important ideas, and the R programming language is used to provide an open-source and interoperable way to build system dynamics models. System Dynamics Modeling with R also describes hands-on techniques that can enhance client confidence in system dynamic models, including model testing, model analysis, and calibration. Developed from the author’s course in system dynamics, this book is written for undergraduate and postgraduate students of management, operations research, computer science, and applied mathematics. Its focus is on the fundamental building blocks of system dynamics models, and its choice of R as a modeling language make it an ideal reference text for those wishing to integrate system dynamics modeling with related data analytic methods and techniques.

Advanced Dynamic Modeling of Economic and Social Systems

Author: Araceli N. Proto
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642329039
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In this volume recent advances in the use of modern quantitative models for the analysis of various problems related to the dynamics of social and economic systems are presented. The majority chapters describe tools and techniques of broadly perceived computational intelligence, notably fuzzy logic, evolutionary computation, neural networks and some non-standard probabilistic and statistical analyses. Due to the high complexity of the systems and problems considered, in many situations it is necessary to consider at the same time analytic, topological and statistical aspects and apply appropriate procedures and algorithms. This volume is a direct result of vivid discussions held during the Fifth International Workshop on Dynamics of Social and Economical Systems (DYSES) which was held at Benevento, Italy September 20-25, 2010, as well as a couple of post-workshop meetings and consultations.

Multilayer Networks

Author: Ginestra Bianconi
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198753918
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Multilayer networks' has become a central topic in Network Science. The book presents a comprehensive account of this emerging field. Multilayer networks are formed by several networks and include social networks, financial markets, multi-modal transportation systems, infrastructures, molecular networks and the brain.

Neuroadaptive Systems

Author: Magdalena Fafrowicz
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439857997
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Broadly defined as the science and technology of systems responding to neural processes in the brain, neuroadaptive systems (NASs) has become a rapidly developing area of study. One of the first books available in this emerging area, Neuroadaptive Systems: Theory and Applications synthesizes knowledge about human behavior, cognition, neural processing, and technology and how it can be used to optimize the design, development, modeling, simulation, and applications of complex neuro-based systems. Balancing coverage of theory and applications, the book examines the general aims of NASs and how neurogenomics can be applied in training applications. It includes important results and findings gathered from approximately two decades of brain computer interaction research. But more than this, the book details the underlying rationale for using NASs compared to other kinds of human-machine systems and raises questions and concerns about budding neuro-scientific areas that gives insight into the way humans may interact with neuro-technological systems in the future. With contributions from international professionals and researchers, this book presents state-of-the-art developments in neuroscience, human factors, and brain activity measurement. Packed with models, case studies, research results, and illustrations, it discusses approaches to understanding the functions of neuronal networks, and then explores challenges and applications of neuroadaptive systems. It provides tools for future development and the theory to support it.

Social Physics

Author: Alex Pentland
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 1101625570
Format: PDF, ePub
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From one of the world’s leading data scientists, a landmark tour of the new science of idea flow, offering revolutionary insights into the mysteries of collective intelligence and social influence If the Big Data revolution has a presiding genius, it is MIT’s Alex “Sandy” Pentland. Over years of groundbreaking experiments, he has distilled remarkable discoveries significant enough to become the bedrock of a whole new scientific field: social physics. Humans have more in common with bees than we like to admit: We’re social creatures first and foremost. Our most important habits of action—and most basic notions of common sense—are wired into us through our coordination in social groups. Social physics is about idea flow, the way human social networks spread ideas and transform those ideas into behaviors. Thanks to the millions of digital bread crumbs people leave behind via smartphones, GPS devices, and the Internet, the amount of new information we have about human activity is truly profound. Until now, sociologists have depended on limited data sets and surveys that tell us how people say they think and behave, rather than what they actually do. As a result, we’ve been stuck with the same stale social structures—classes, markets—and a focus on individual actors, data snapshots, and steady states. Pentland shows that, in fact, humans respond much more powerfully to social incentives that involve rewarding others and strengthening the ties that bind than incentives that involve only their own economic self-interest. Pentland and his teams have found that they can study patterns of information exchange in a social network without any knowledge of the actual content of the information and predict with stunning accuracy how productive and effective that network is, whether it’s a business or an entire city. We can maximize a group’s collective intelligence to improve performance and use social incentives to create new organizations and guide them through disruptive change in a way that maximizes the good. At every level of interaction, from small groups to large cities, social networks can be tuned to increase exploration and engagement, thus vastly improving idea flow. Social Physics will change the way we think about how we learn and how our social groups work—and can be made to work better, at every level of society. Pentland leads readers to the edge of the most important revolution in the study of social behavior in a generation, an entirely new way to look at life itself. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Fundamentals of Complex Networks

Author: Guanrong Chen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118718143
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Complex networks such as the Internet, WWW, transportation networks, power grids, biological neural networks, and scientific cooperation networks of all kinds provide challenges for future technological development. • The first systematic presentation of dynamical evolving networks, with many up-to-date applications and homework projects to enhance study • The authors are all very active and well-known in the rapidly evolving field of complex networks • Complex networks are becoming an increasingly important area of research • Presented in a logical, constructive style, from basic through to complex, examining algorithms, through to construct networks and research challenges of the future

Sociophysics An Introduction

Author: Parongama Sen
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191639451
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book discusses the study and analysis of the physical aspects of social systems and models, inspired by the analogy with familiar models of physical systems and possible applications of statistical physics tools. Unlike the traditional analysis of the physics of macroscopic many-body or condensed matter systems, which is now an established and mature subject, the upsurge in the physical analysis and modelling of social systems, which are clearly many-body dynamical systems, is a recent phenomenon. Though the major developments in sociophysics have taken place only recently, the earliest attempts of proposing "Social Physics" as a discipline are more than one and a half centuries old. Various developments in the mainstream physics of condensed matter systems have inspired and induced the recent growth of sociophysical analysis and models. In spite of the tremendous efforts of many scientists in recent years, the subject is still in its infancy and major challenges are yet to be taken up. An introduction to these challenges is the main motivation for this book.

Handbook on Biological Networks

Author: Stefano Boccaletti
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812838805
Format: PDF
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Networked systems are all around us. The accumulated evidence of systems as complex as a cell cannot be fully understood by studying only their isolated constituents, giving rise to a new area of interest in research OCo the study of complex networks . In a broad sense, biological networks have been one of the most studied networks, and the field has benefited from many important contributions. By understanding and modeling the structure of a biological network, a better perception of its dynamical and functional behavior is to be expected. This unique book compiles the most relevant results and novel insights provided by network theory in the biological sciences, ranging from the structure and dynamics of the brain to cellular and protein networks and to population-level biology. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Introduction (61 KB). Contents: Networks at the Cellular Level: The Structural Network Properties of Biological Systems (M Brilli & P Li); Dynamics of Multicellular Synthetic Gene Networks (E Ullner et al.); Boolean Networks in Inference and Dynamic Modeling of Biological Systems at the Molecular and Physiological Level (J Thakar & R Albert); Complexity of Boolean Dynamics in Simple Models of Signaling Networks and in Real Genetic Networks (A D az-Guilera & R ulvarez-Buylla); Geometry and Topology of Folding Landscapes (L Bongini & L Casetti); Elastic Network Models for Biomolecular Dynamics: Theory and Application to Membrane Proteins and Viruses (T R Lezon et al.); Metabolic Networks (M C Palumbo et al.); Brain Networks: The Human Brain Network (O Sporns); Brain Network Analysis from High-Resolution EEG Signals (F De Vico Fallani & F Babiloni); An Optimization Approach to the Structure of the Neuronal layout of C elegans (A Arenas et al.); Cultured Neuronal Networks Express Complex Patterns of Activity and Morphological Memory (N Raichman et al.); Synchrony and Precise Timing in Complex Neural Networks (R-M Memmesheimer & M Timme); Networks at the Individual and Population Levels: Ideas for Moving Beyond Structure to Dynamics of Ecological Networks (D B Stouffer et al.); Evolutionary Models for Simple Biosystems (F Bagnoli); Evolution of Cooperation in Adaptive Social Networks (S Van Segbroeck et al.); From Animal Collectives and Complex Networks to Decentralized Motion Control Strategies (A Buscarino et al.); Interplay of Network State and Topology in Epidemic Dynamics (T Gross). Readership: Advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers interested in the study of complex networks in a wide range of biological processes and systems."

Digitale Kommunikation

Author: Christoph Meinel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540929223
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Internet und World Wide Web basieren auf dem Vermögen, Informationen und Medien jeder Art in digitalisierter Form über Nachrichtenkanäle zu transportieren und zu verbreiten. Die Autoren erläutern Grundlagen und geschichtliche Hintergründe der digitalen Kommunikation und geben einen Überblick über Methoden und Verfahren der Kodierung von Text-, Audio-, Grafik- und Videoinformation, die im Internet zur Anwendung kommen. Zahlreiche Abbildungen sowie Sachindex, Personenindex und Glossar zu jedem Kapitel erhöhen den praktischen Nutzen dieses Handbuchs.

Provenance Data in Social Media

Author: Geoffrey Barbier
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1608457842
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Social media shatters the barrier to communicate anytime anywhere for people of all walks of life. The publicly available, virtually free information in social media poses a new challenge to consumers who have to discern whether a piece of information published in social media is reliable. For example, it can be difficult to understand the motivations behind a statement passed from one user to another, without knowing the person who originated the message. Additionally, false information can be propagated through social media, resulting in embarrassment or irreversible damages. Provenance data associated with a social media statement can help dispel rumors, clarify opinions, and confirm facts. However, provenance data about social media statements is not readily available to users today. Currently, providing this data to users requires changing the social media infrastructure or offering subscription services. Taking advantage of social media features, research in this nascent field spearheads the search for a way to provide provenance data to social media users, thus leveraging social media itself by mining it for the provenance data. Searching for provenance data reveals an interesting problem space requiring the development and application of new metrics in order to provide meaningful provenance data to social media users. This lecture reviews the current research on information provenance, explores exciting research opportunities to address pressing needs, and shows how data mining can enable a social media user to make informed judgements about statements published in social media. Table of Contents: Information Provenance in Social Media / Provenance Attributes / Provenance via Network Information / Provenance Data