Systems of General Sales Taxation

Author: Robert F. Van Brederode
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
ISBN: 9041128328
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Sales taxes − including gross receipt taxes, retail sales taxes and value added taxes − are a key part of the fiscal revenue of many countries. Given an increasingly global economy − and the recent stresses to which it's been subjected − many issues come into play in connection with the legal, tax policy and economic implications presented by the taxation of international transactions. This thoughtful work begins with the basics and approaches sales taxation from a number of different aspects. It provides in-depth economic analysis (for non-economists) of all the taxes covered, including tax shifting, tax incidence, the economic effect of reduced rates and exemptions, tax accumulation, regressivity, and the Laffer curve approach. In addition, it offers a tax policy approach in regard to specific economic sectors such as the treatment of small enterprises, financial services, and real property. This highly useful reference employs a comparative focus as well, especially where US sales tax is contrasted to EU VAT (e.g., in regard of e-commerce and the treatment of capital goods). Last but not least, the work offers insightful legal analysis in such key areas as cross-border transactions and US constitutional restraints.

International Taxation and the Extractive Industries

Author: Philip Daniel
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317330145
Format: PDF, ePub
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The taxation of extractive industries exploiting oil, gas, or minerals is usually treated as a sovereign, national policy and administration issue. This book offers a uniquely comprehensive overview of the theory and practice involved in designing policies on the international aspects of fiscal regimes for these industries, with a particular focus on developing and emerging economies. International Taxation and the Extractive Industries addresses key topics that are not frequently covered in the literature, such as the geo-political implications of cross-border pipelines and the legal implications of mining contracts and regional financial obligations. The contributors, all of whom are leading researchers with experience of working with governments and companies on these issues, present an authoritative collection of chapters. The volume reviews international tax rules, covering both developments in the G20-OECD project on ’Base Erosion and Profit Shifting’ and more radical proposals, identifying core challenges in the extractives sector. This book should become a core resource for both scholars and practitioners. It will also appeal to those interested in international tax issues more widely and those who study environmental economics, macroeconomics and development economics.

Global Transfer Pricing

Author: Chris Adams
Publisher: Tottel Publishing
ISBN: 9781847663962
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Including expert commentary and UK guidance, this second edition comprehensively outlines the general UK principles of transfer pricing and includes matrices of pricing. Contents include: what is it and why does it matter? * OECD and legislative principles (theory) * tangible goods transactions * intra-group services * financing transactions * intangibles * global trading and the allocation of profits to permanent establishment * transfer pricing planning * documentation * eliminating double taxation * practical difficulties, with arm's length pricing and transfer pricing planning.

The Theory Principles and Management of Taxation

Author: Jane Frecknall-Hughes
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135085757
Format: PDF, ePub
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There are many practical textbooks explaining how taxation is applied and calculated but few ever deal thoroughly with the theory behind the practice. This book concisely addresses the principles and theories behind taxation in an accessible and internationally relevant way. It encourages readers to think through and develop an understanding of why taxation is imposed, the different means by which it is imposed and the nature of the problems inherent in this imposition. It addresses background issues, fundamental principles and emerging topics such as: the philosophy and history of taxation; types of taxation; and international issues, including double taxation treaties, residence and transfer prices. This text is essential reading for students of taxation and provides a valuable introduction for students of business, finance and accounting.

Taxation

Author: Andrew Lymer
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781906201173
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Fully updated each year, this, the leading textbook in the field, continues to provide coverage of the UK's tax system as it has for the last 19 years. Written in an accessible style with many examples, activities and questions throughout, this textbook gives the reader a thorough understanding of the UK's taxation principles and current practices.

WHO Technical Manual on Tobacco Tax Administration

Author: World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9241563990
Format: PDF, ePub
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Tobacco use is the single largest cause of preventable death globally, killing more than five million people each year. Tobacco use also creates considerable economic costs, from greater spending on health care to treat the diseases it brings on in users and those exposed to tobacco smoke to the lost productivity resulting from the premature deaths it causes. Of all the many interventions for reducing tobacco use, a significant increase in tobacco product taxes and prices has been demonstrated to be the single most effective and cost-effective intervention, particularly among the poor and the young. At the same time, because of the inelasticity of demand for tobacco products in most countries and the low share of tax in price in many, significant increases in tobacco taxes generate significant increases in the revenues generated by these taxes. This technical manual aims to help governments achieve both objectives by identifying a set of "best practices" for tobacco taxation. It documents governments' existing approaches to tobacco taxation, discusses barriers to using tobacco taxes to achieve health and revenue objectives, and provides case studies of effective tobacco tax administration. This manual is intended to be useful to tax administrators at the Ministry of Finance level by making them aware of the practices used and challenges faced by other countries. It will also be useful to officials in a country's Ministry of Health or similar organizations by providing them with a more thorough understanding of key issues in tax structure and administration.

Taxation in Asia

Author: Jorge Martinez-Vazquez
Publisher: Asian Development Bank
ISBN: 9290923377
Format: PDF, ePub
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This publication presents an overview of tax policy and tax administration issues---how countries in Asia and the Pacific compare with the rest of the world in main taxes, revenue collections, tax morale, and others. The implications of reducing reliance on customs tariff revenues and of using the value-added tax on a broader basis, especially in the services sector, have been analyzed. This note suggests an agenda for reform by discussing whether there is space to increase national revenue collections, how to improve tax administration and enforcement, and how these reforms interact with the decentralization paradigm. The individual country performances, the extent of the shadow economy, and lessons on reforming tax administration have been referenced.

International Taxation in a Nutshell

Author: Richard Doernberg
Publisher: West Academic Publishing
ISBN: 9781628105551
Format: PDF, ePub
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This nutshell not only addresses the fundamentals of U.S. international taxation, but it also offers insight into tax planning considerations. Both the U.S. activities of foreign taxpayers, as well as the foreign activities of U.S. taxpayers are explored. In the truly global economy in which we live, it is crucial for those involved in business and investment activities to understand the tax consequences that impact cross-border flows. Building on both academic and private sector careers, the author has used his experience to distill the complexities of real-world tax considerations into a clearly written, straight-forward presentation of the key international tax concepts, including the most recent developments.

Challenging Gender Inequality in Tax Policy Making

Author: Kim Brooks
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847316549
Format: PDF, Docs
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This volume takes a critical look at the gender of tax policy around the world. Contributors based in eight different countries examine the profound effects that gender norms and practices have had in shaping tax law and policy, and how taxation in turn impacts upon the possibilities for equality along gender, race, class, sexuality and other lines. Chapters explore how the gendered fiscal state might be theorised; how structural choices about rates and bases in tax policy design contribute to gender inequality; how tax policy affects family configurations and perceptions of what constitutes family; how fiscal systems impact on savings and wealth accumulation by women and men; and the role of different policy-making processes and institutions in occluding and sometimes challenging these patterns. Most significantly, perhaps, the book explores these questions in an international frame, traversing countries and continents. The conclusion: fiscal policy has deep rooted, long standing gender implications that affect virtually every aspect of our social, political, and economic lives whether we live in Canada, Australia or Kenya.

Value added tax

Author: Alan Schenk
Publisher: Transnational Pub Inc
ISBN: 9781571051691
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This comparative examination of Value Added Taxes world-wide covers both theory and practice and is intended for an audience of students, teachers, researchers, government officials, and practitioners. The authors are American law professors, both teachers of courses on VAT and long time members of the ABA's Committee on Value Added Tax (recently the Committee on Alternative Tax Systems). The book begins with an extensive survey of VAT principles as enunciated during the second half of the twentieth century in official reports and by economists and other tax authorities. Included are basic statistical data and an appendix delineating the global spread of the tax together with rates in the year 2000. Thereafter, the authors present the legal concepts and definitions displayed in VAT laws and elaborated by the courts of Europe and New Zealand. Comparison is made from time to time with American experience with state retail sales taxes. Application of VATs to particular activities is examined in separate chapters devoted to banking, insurance, real estate, and non-profit organisations. Particular attention is paid to cross-border situations whether international, within the European Union and other country groupings, or within federal countries. The special problems of telecommunications, transportation and E-commerce are covered together in one chapter. A feature of the book of particular use to practitioners as well as students and scholars is an appendix of more than 100 pages, which sets forth the consolidated text of the European Union's famous Sixth Directive. It serves as the governing statutory document for the VATs in EU member countries and is the subject of interpretation and application in many of the litigated cases included or referred to in the book.