Taking Control of Oil

Author: Asian Development Bank
Publisher: Asian Development Bank
ISBN: 9292547437
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This publication provides a comprehensive assessment of recent global oil price trends, the exposure of Pacific developing member countries to oil price increases and its implications for social and economic development in the region. It also offers a number of policy options for managing risks associated with heavy dependence on oil imports and proposes a path for diversifying the energy mix in Pacific developing member countries.

Ownership and Control of Oil

Author: Bianca Sarbu
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317695445
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Ownership and Control of Oil examines government decisions about how much control to exert over the petroleum industry, focusing on the role of National Oil Companies in the production of crude oil since the nationalizations in the 1970s. What are the motives for which some producing states opt for less and NOT more control of their oil production sector? When can International Oil Companies enter the upstream industry of producing states and under what conditions? The diversity of policy choices across producers provides the stage for this investigation: different theoretical explanations are confronted, with the empirical evidence, with the aim of finally proposing an interdisciplinary framework of analysis to explain who controls oil production around the world. This book is intended for both specialists and general readers who have an interest in the issue of government control of the petroleum industry. Due to its multidisciplinary approach, the book is aimed at a large academic public composed of scholars of Political Science, International Political Economy, Comparative Politics, and Middle East Area Studies. Moreover, this book should be relevant to international consultants, industry professionals and decision-makers in countries assessing their experience with existing control structures as well as the many countries in the process of joining the ‘petroleum club’ of oil producing nations.

Plows Plagues and Petroleum

Author: William F. Ruddiman
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400834730
Format: PDF, ePub
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The impact on climate from 200 years of industrial development is an everyday fact of life, but did humankind's active involvement in climate change really begin with the industrial revolution, as commonly believed? Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum has sparked lively scientific debate since it was first published--arguing that humans have actually been changing the climate for some 8,000 years--as a result of the earlier discovery of agriculture. The "Ruddiman Hypothesis" will spark intense debate. We learn that the impact of farming on greenhouse-gas levels, thousands of years before the industrial revolution, kept our planet notably warmer than if natural climate cycles had prevailed--quite possibly forestalling a new ice age. Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum is the first book to trace the full historical sweep of human interaction with Earth's climate. Ruddiman takes us through three broad stages of human history: when nature was in control; when humans began to take control, discovering agriculture and affecting climate through carbon dioxide and methane emissions; and, finally, the more recent human impact on climate change. Along the way he raises the fascinating possibility that plagues, by depleting human populations, also affected reforestation and thus climate--as suggested by dips in greenhouse gases when major pandemics have occurred. While our massive usage of fossil fuels has certainly contributed to modern climate change, Ruddiman shows that industrial growth is only part of the picture. The book concludes by looking to the future and critiquing the impact of special interest money on the global warming debate. In the afterword, Ruddiman explores the main challenges posed to his hypothesis, and shows how recent investigations and findings ultimately strengthen the book's original claims.

Drugs Oil and War

Author: Peter Dale Scott
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
ISBN: 0585459738
Format: PDF
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Peter Dale Scott's brilliantly researched tour de force illuminates the underlying forces that drive U.S. global policy from Vietnam to Colombia and now to Afghanistan and Iraq. He brings to light the intertwined patterns of drugs, oil politics, and intelligence networks that have been so central to the larger workings of U.S. intervention and escalation in Third World countries through alliances with drug-trafficking proxies. This strategy was originally developed in the late 1940s to contain communist China; it has since been used to secure control over foreign petroleum resources. The result has been a staggering increase in the global drug traffic and the mafias associated with it_a problem that will worsen until there is a change in policy. Scott argues that covert operations almost always outlast the specific purpose for which they were designed. Instead, they grow and become part of a hostile constellation of forces. The author terms this phenomenon parapolitics_the exercise of power by covert means_which tends to metastasize into deep politics_the interplay of unacknowledged forces that spin out of the control of the original policy initiators. We must recognize that U.S. influence is grounded not just in military and economic superiority, Scott contends, but also in so-called soft power. We need a 'soft politics' of persuasion and nonviolence, especially as America is embroiled in yet another disastrous intervention, this time in Iraq.

Pollution Control Instrumentation for Oil and Effluents

Author: H. Parker
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400932332
Format: PDF
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The scale of global transportation of oil cargoes has led to a demand for increased control and international legislation to combat accidental and operational dis charges of oily wastes and residues at sea. Since 1954 the International Maritime Organisation (IMO)* has provided the international forum for the development of several proposals for controlling oil pollution from shipping, which culminated in the 1973 International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships and the 1978 Protocol relating to this Convention, together known as MARPOL 73178. Apart from the requirement for improvements in the constructional design of tankers, and operational procedures to enhance both safety and pollution control in the carriage of oil and other noxious substances at sea, MARPOL 73178 called for the extensive installation of oil discharge monitoring, control and separating equipment on board ships and offshore platforms. The 1973 Convention came into force in October 1983, twelve months after sufficient countries had ratified it and agreed to abide by the international rules and regulations. As a result, a large number of systems have now been installed and are operational. The demand to separate oil from water to give an oil content of less than 15 parts per million (ppm) and measure this on-line in an extremely difficult environment has pro vided a considerable impetus for the development of novel and robust instrumen tation and systems.

A Comparative History of National Oil Companies

Author: Alain Beltran
Publisher: Peter Lang
ISBN: 9789052015750
Format: PDF, Docs
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Oil is undoubtedly rather more than a mere hydrocarbon. It is a development factor, an essential element in energy balances, a strategic weapon, a resource characterized by unequal distribution, and also by unequal consumption. For more than a century now, it has showed its importance, whether during periods of crisis, or at times of strong growth. Under such circumstances, few countries have allowed mere market laws to operate freely. Whether visible or discreet, the hand of the State has been present in many cases, depending on different purposes and taking various forms. Hence national companies developed, if only in order to deal with the Majors and their greatly feared power. One finds examples of national companies both in Western Europe and in certain developing countries that have substantial resources on their soil. Those companies did not all experience the same destiny, but they have sometimes influenced the rules of the oil game. The colloquium held in Paris in 2003 (-National oil companies: history, characteristics, comparisons from the inter-war period to the end of the 20th century-) provided some new facts and viewpoints in connection with this history, still relatively unknown. You will read contributions here from various horizons making it possible to illuminate the present and the near future, since oil industry issues continue to challenge the world."

Oil Empire

Author: Alison Fleig FRANK
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674037182
Format: PDF, Kindle
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At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Austrian Empire ranked third among the world's oil-producing states (surpassed only by the United States and Russia), and accounted for five percent of global oil production. By 1918, the Central Powers did not have enough oil to maintain a modern military. How and why did the promise of oil fail Galicia (the province producing the oil) and the Empire? In a brilliantly conceived work, Alison Frank traces the interaction of technology, nationalist rhetoric, social tensions, provincial politics, and entrepreneurial vision in shaping the Galician oil industry. She portrays this often overlooked oil boom's transformation of the environment, and its reorientation of religious and social divisions that had defined a previously agrarian population, as surprising alliances among traditional foes sprang up among workers and entrepreneurs, at the workplace, and in the pubs and brothels of new oiltowns. Frank sets this complex story in a context of international finance, technological exchange, and Habsburg history as a sobering counterpoint to traditional modernization narratives. As the oil ran out, the economy, the population, and the environment returned largely to their former state, reminding us that there is nothing ineluctable about the consequences of industrial development.

Oil and the International Economy

Author: Georg Koopmann
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781412829946
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The oil price increases of the 1970s left deep marks on the world economy. They led to a massive redistribution of income in favor of oil-producing countries, and caused serious disruption of growth, imbalances in foreign trade, and problems of stability in oil-importing countries. Despite the present levelling off, the authors suggest that more price increases remain a distinct possibility. "Oil and the International Economy "examines the effects of rising oil prices on the international financial system and identifies ways that oil-importing countries can overcome the financial and adjustment problems caused by them. The authors project the long-term trend in real oil prices and present economic policy options to help avoid future financial problems for industrialized and developing nations alike. Contents: The World Oil Market after the Oil Price Shocks; Future Trends in the Demand for Oil; Future Trends in the Supply of Oil; Balance-of-Payments and Exchange-Rate Adjustment: Current Account Developments in Times of Rising Oil Prices and Effects on Exchange Rates; The Effects of Real Oil Price Increases on Energy and Raw Material Prices; Repercussions on the General Price Level; Implications for the German Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy; Are Real Oil Price Increases a Brake on Growth?; Options for Economic Policy; The Struggle for Markets in the Oil-Producing Countries; The Oil-Producing Countries as Competitors in the Manufacturing Sector; Consequences for Trade Between Oil-Importing Countries.