Texas and Northeastern Mexico 1630 1690

Author: Juan Bautista Chapa
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 029278984X
Format: PDF, Docs
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In the seventeenth century, South Texas and Northeastern Mexico formed El Nuevo Reino de León, a frontier province of New Spain. In 1690, Juan Bautista Chapa penned a richly detailed history of Nuevo León for the years 1630 to 1690. Although his Historia de Nuevo León was not published until 1909, it has since been acclaimed as the key contemporary document for any historical study of Spanish colonial Texas. This book offers the only accurate and annotated English translation of Chapa's Historia. In addition to the translation, William C. Foster also summarizes the Discourses of Alonso de León (the elder), which cover the years 1580 to 1649. In the appendix, Foster includes a translation of Alonso (the younger) de León's previously unpublished revised diary of the 1690 expedition to East Texas and an alphabetical listing of over 80 Indian tribes identified in this book. Chapa was also an authority on the local Indians, and his Historia lists the names and locations of over 300 Indian tribes. This information, together with descriptions of the vegetation, wildlife, and climate in seventeenth-century Texas, make this book essential reading for ethnographers, anthropologists, and biogeographers, as well as students and scholars of Spanish borderlands history.

General Alonso de Le n s Expeditions into Texas 1686 1690

Author: Lola Orellano Norris
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 1623495407
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In the late seventeenth century, General Alonso de León led five military expeditions from northern New Spain into what is now Texas in search of French intruders who had settled on lands claimed by the Spanish crown. Lola Orellano Norris has identified sixteen manuscript copies of de León’s meticulously kept expedition diaries. These documents hold major importance for early Texas scholarship. Some of these early manuscripts have been known to historians, but never before have all sixteen manuscripts been studied. In this interdisciplinary study, Norris transcribes, translates, and analyzes the diaries from two different perspectives. The historical analysis reveals that frequent misinterpretations of the Spanish source documents have led to substantial factual errors that have persisted in historical interpretation for more than a century. General Alonso de León’s Expeditions into Texas is the first presentation of these important early documents and provides new vistas on Spanish Texas.

Conflict And Commerce On The Rio Grande

Author: John A. Adams
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781603440424
Format: PDF
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Laredo is a city at the crossroads of North American history. Founded by the Spanish in 1755, it has stood at the intersection of regional commerce since its earliest days. Now, John A. Adams, Jr. provides the first-ever panoramic business and economic history of Laredo. He traces the evolution of the region from its early days as a ranching center into the mid-twentieth century, when Laredo had become what it remains today: a booming port of trade and a principal center of commerce and financial services on the southern border of the United States. In Commerce and Conflict on the Rio Grande Adams demonstrates how the increasingly diversified economy of the region fed the fortunes of the city. His narrative, buttressed throughout by tables and statistics, paints a vivid mural of both the economic forces and the farsighted and ambitious individuals that combined to bring prosperity to this unique American city. Readers will find a wealth of insights into regional economics, history, and borderlands themes.

Spanish Texas 1519 1821

Author: Donald E. Chipman
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292782632
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Modern Texas, like Mexico, traces its beginning to sixteenth-century encounters between Europeans and Indians who contested control over a vast land. Unlike Mexico, however, Texas eventually received the stamp of Anglo-American culture, so that Spanish contributions to present-day Texas tend to be obscured or even unknown. The first edition of Spanish Texas, 1519–1821 (1992) sought to emphasize the significance of the Spanish period in Texas history. Beginning with information on the land and its inhabitants before the arrival of Europeans, the original volume covered major people and events from early exploration to the end of the colonial era. This new edition of Spanish Texas has been extensively revised and expanded to include a wealth of discoveries about Texas history since 1990. The opening chapter on Texas Indians reveals their high degree of independence from European influence and extended control over their own lives. Other chapters incorporate new information on La Salle's Garcitas Creek colony and French influences in Texas, the destruction of the San Sabá mission and the Spanish punitive expedition to the Red River in the late 1750s, and eighteenth-century Bourbon reforms in the Americas. Drawing on their own and others' research, the authors also provide more inclusive coverage of the role of women of various ethnicities in Spanish Texas and of the legal rights of women on the Texas frontier, demonstrating that whether European or Indian, elite or commoner, slave owner or slave, women enjoyed legal protections not heretofore fully appreciated.

Missions Missionaries and Native Americans

Author: Maria de Fátima Wade
Publisher:
ISBN:
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"Missions are memory sites for many descendants of colonial populations and for colonized Native Americans. As such, Spanish missions enshrine complex and contested memories for those whose long-term histories are implicated in the process of mission-building and conversion. From the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries, Spanish missionaries traveled to America to convert Native Americans to Catholicism. Here, Franciscan and Jesuit dogma often conflicted with the pragmatic issues of the survival of both secular and missionary settlements. With cogent analysis of archaeological records, Maria F. Wade addresses the long-term processes of development of the mission as an institution in Florida, northern Mexico, Texas, and southwest California." "The missionaries who traveled to New Spain were prepared to wage a battle against evil. They had honed their conversion skills in the trials of the Inquisition against heresy, witchcraft, and on the tribulations of the Europeans afflicted with disease, poverty, and famine. The four geographic areas studied here represent stages (early, middle, and late) in the approach to conversion, all of which were influenced by Hapsburg and Bourbon political and military objectives. Vital to their efforts was the definition of the boundaries between good and evil, a demarcation that engendered conflict and proved a particularly trying point of conversion. Missionaries working in these regions generally encountered Native spiritual practices that did not fit idolatrous definitions. Thus, under the pressures of duty to God and country, these missionaries came to feel trapped by the very system they created." "Missions, Missionaries, and Native Americans provides in-depth information on varied missionary ambitions and native peoples' responses to evangelization and conversion, with an ethnohistorical and archaeological perspective on the structure and daily activities of early mission life."--BOOK JACKET.

Historic Native Peoples of Texas

Author: William C. Foster
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292781911
Format: PDF
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Several hundred tribes of Native Americans were living within or hunting and trading across the present-day borders of Texas when Cabeza de Vaca and his shipwrecked companions washed up on a Gulf Coast beach in 1528. Over the next two centuries, as Spanish and French expeditions explored the state, they recorded detailed information about the locations and lifeways of Texas's Native peoples. Using recent translations of these expedition diaries and journals, along with discoveries from ongoing archaeological investigations, William C. Foster here assembles the most complete account ever published of Texas's Native peoples during the early historic period (AD 1528 to 1722). Foster describes the historic Native peoples of Texas by geographic regions. His chronological narrative records the interactions of Native groups with European explorers and with Native trading partners across a wide network that extended into Louisiana, the Great Plains, New Mexico, and northern Mexico. Foster provides extensive ethnohistorical information about Texas's Native peoples, as well as data on the various regions' animals, plants, and climate. Accompanying each regional account is an annotated list of named Indian tribes in that region and maps that show tribal territories and European expedition routes. This authoritative overview of Texas's historic Native peoples reveals that these groups were far more cosmopolitan than previously known. Functioning as the central link in the continent-wide circulation of trade goods and cultural elements such as religion, architecture, and lithic technology, Texas's historic Native peoples played a crucial role in connecting the Native peoples of North America from the Pacific Coast to the Southeast woodlands.

The La Salle Expedition to Texas

Author: Henri Joutel
Publisher: Texas State Historical Assn
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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“Those of us who knew how to swim crossed to the other bank. But a number of our company did not know how to swim, and I was among that number. One of the Indians gave me a sign to go get a nearly dry log . . . then, fastening a strap on each end, he made us understand that we should hold on to the log with one arm and try to swim with the other arm and our feet . . . While trying to swim . . . I accidentally hit the Father in the stomach. At that moment he thought he was lost and, I assure you, he invoked the patron saint of his order, St. Francis, with all his heart. I could not keep from laughing although I could see I was in peril of drowning. But the Indians on the other side saw all this and came to our help . . . “Still there were others to get across. . . . We made the Indians understand that they must go help them, but because they had become disgusted by the last trip, they did not want to return again. This distressed us greatly.”—From Henri Joute’s journal, March 23, 1687, shortly after La Salle was murdered. The La Salle Expedition in Texas presents the definitive English translation of Henri Joutel’s classic account of Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle’s 1684–1687 expedition to establish a fort and colony near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Written from detailed notes taken during this historic journey, Joutel’s journal is the most comprehensive and authoritative account available of this dramatic story of adventure and misadventure in Texas. Joutel, who served as post commander for La Salle, describes in accurate and colorful detail the daily experiences and precise route La Salle’s party followed in 1687 from the Texas coast to the Mississippi River. By carefully comparing Joutel’s compass directions and detailed descriptions to maps and geographic locations, Foster has established where La Salle was murdered by his men, and has corrected many erroneous geographic interpretations made by French and American scholars during the past century. Joutel’s account is a captivating narrative set in a Texas coastal wilderness. Foster follows Joutel, La Salle, and their fellow adventurers as they encounter Indians and their unique cultures; enormous drifting herds of bison; and unknown flora and fauna, including lethal flowering cactus fruit and rattlesnakes. The cast of characters includes priests and soldiers, deserters and murderers, Indian leaders, and a handful of French women who worked side-by-side with the men. It is a remarkable first hand tale of dramatic adventure as these diverse individuals meet and interact on the grand landscape of Texas. Joutel’s journal, newly translated by Johanna S. Warren, is edited and annotated with an extensive introduction by William C. Foster. The account is accompanied by numerous detailed maps and the first published English translation of the testimony of Pierre Meunier, one of the most knowledgeable and creditable survivors of La Salle’s expedition.

Notable men and women of Spanish Texas

Author: Donald E. Chipman
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Spanish colonial era in Texas (1528-1821) continues to emerge from the shadows of the past with every new discovery made by archaeologists and historians. In this book, years of archival sleuthing by Donald E. Chipman and Harriett Denise Joseph now reveal the real human beings behind the legendary figures who played significant roles in discovering, exploring, and settling Spanish Texas. By combining dramatic, real-life incidents, biographical sketches, and historical background, the authors bring to life these famous (and sometimes infamous) men of Spanish Texas: ALVAR NUNEZ CABEZA DE VACA, best known of the early explorers and author of the first published book on Texas ALONSO DE LEON, Texas pathfinder and co-founder of the first mission in East Texas FRANCISCO HIDALGO, famous Franciscan missionary LOUIS JUCHEREAU DE ST. DENIS, dashing French cavalier ANTONIO MARGIL, Franciscan missionary THE MARQUES DE AGUAYO, military officer PEDRO DE RIVERA, imperious crown inspector FELIPE DE RABAGO, rakish presidial commander and murder suspect JOSE DE ESCANDON, peerless colonizer of Nuevo Santander ATHANASE DE MEZIERES, brilliant French Indian agent THE MARQUES DE RUBI, crown inspector ANTONIO GIL IBARVO, "Father of East Texas" and founder of Nacogdoches DOMINGO CABELLO, talented but reluctant governor JOSE BERNARDO GUTIERREZ DE LARA, dedicated insurrectionist "BUTCHER" JOAQUIN DE ARREDONDO, military officer The authors also devote a chapter to women in Spanish Texas, drawing on scarce historical clues to tell the stories of women from Maria de Agreda, the venerated "Lady in Blue", to Jane Long, often called the "Mother of Texas", to ordinary Tejana, Indian, and African women. These biographies offer an entirely new approach to understanding colonial Texas. Demonstrating how much we have in common with these early forebears, this book will be important reading for everyone interested in the history of Texas and the Spanish Borderlands.