The Acquisition and Retention of Knowledge A Cognitive View

Author: D.P. Ausubel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401594546
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In 1963 an initial attempt was made in my The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning to present a cognitive theory of meaningful as opposed to rote verbal learning. It was based on the proposition that the acquisition and retention of knowl edge (particularly of verbal knowledge as, for example, in school, or subject-matter learning) is the product of an active, integrative, interactional process between instructional material (subject matter) and relevant ideas in the leamer's cognitive structure to which the new ideas are relatable in particular ways. This book is a full-scale revision of my 1963 monograph, The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning, in the sense that it addresses the major aforementioned and hitherto unmet goals by providing for an expansion, clarification, differentiation, and sharper focusing of the principal psychological variables and processes involved in meaningful learning and retention, i.e., for their interrelationships and interactions leading to the generation of new meanings in the individual learner. The preparation of this new monograph was largely necessitated by the virtual collapse of the neobe havioristic theoretical orientation to learning during the previous forty years; and by the meteoric rise in the seventies and beyond of constructivist approaches to learning theory.

The Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills for Taskwork and Teamwork to Control Complex Technical Systems

Author: Annette Kluge
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400750498
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book provides the first comprehensive literature review on the acquisition and retention of complex skills in High Reliability Organizations. Based on this review, it introduces a theoretical model of how skill and knowledge acquisition for complex tasks is accomplished and shows how this model can be used to derive training methods and instructional techniques. Successful acquisition and retention of complex technical skills within High Reliability Organizations requires a full understanding of the learning process, knowledge structure, and skill requirements associated with the effective operation and management of technology. For researchers and for organizations, the understanding of these processes is vital for designing training programs as well as for reducing errors with severe consequences for human lives and the environment. Until now, only theoretical fragments exist on this topic, and only a very limited number of publications actually address complex tasks in vocational/occupational settings. “The Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills for Task Work and Teamwork to Control Complex Technical Systems ” uses its literature overview and theoretical model to formulate training principles, that can be used to develop training experiments for further empirical investigations as well as training methods for applied organizational contexts.

Development of Long Term Retention

Author: Mark L. Howe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461228689
Format: PDF, ePub
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For a number of decades now the study of children's memory development, with few exceptions, has been synonymous with the development of pro cesses that lead to the initial encoding and immediate retention of informa tion. Although there is little doubt that the study of such acquisition pro cesses is central to understanding memory development, the long-term retention of previously encoded information represents at least as important a component of children's memory. Indeed, as both students of memory development and educators, our interest is in the maintenance and utiliza tion of knowledge over considerable periods of time, not just in the immedi ate (e. g. , classroom) context. Clearly, then, without an understanding of how recently acquired information is maintained in memory over extended periods of time, our theories of long-term memory development remain incomplete at best. Although children's forgetting and reminiscence was a topic of inquiry early in this century, it is only recently, due in part to the current controversy concerning the reliability of children's eyewitness testimony, that the study of long-term retention has resurfaced in the scientific literature. The purpose of this volume is to draw together some of the principals involved in this resurgence to summarize their recent research programs, present new and previously unpublished findings from their labs, and outline the issues they believe are important in the study of children's long-term retention.

The Long Term Retention of Knowledge and Skills

Author: Marshall J. Farr
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461210623
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUNDl,2 This report reviews and interprets research on the nature and magnitude of the effects of those factors which influence how well knowledge and skills (K&S) are retained over relatively long periods of nonuse. Our interest lies in the kinds of knowledge domains and skills that military personnel must master to function effectively on their jobs. The practical concern impelling this study is that K&S degradation or loss (which we will refer to as "decay") can and does occur, often and severely enough, to jeopardize military preparedness. There are occasions in all the military services when personnel who have just completed their training do not receive an opportunity to practice or use their new capabilities for weeks or months. In the case of reservists who may be called back to active duty, the period of nonuse of relevant military job skills may be counted in terms of years. B. OBJECTIVES The overall objective is to critically analyze the relevant scientific literature which relates the processes involved in learning to those of memory, taking into account the characteristics of the learner and the learning tasks. More specifically, we have focused on the following sub-objectives: 1. Identify, describe and rank the influence and the interactions of the important major variables that affect long-term retention (LTR); 1 I am indebted to Dr. Jesse Orlansky, Institute for Defense Analyses, for his encouragement and guidance through all phases of this report.

Transfer of Learning

Author: Stephen M. Cormier
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483297373
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Since the mid-1970s, scientific and educational research has left a gap in the field of basic and applied research on transfer of learning. This book fills the gap with state-of-the-art information on recent research in the field, emphasizing methodological paradigms and interpretive concepts based on contemporary cognitive/information processing approaches to the study of human behavior. Issues discussed include how transfer is measured, how its direction and magnitude are determined, how training for transfer differs from training for acquisition, and whether different principles of transfer apply to motor, cognitive, and meta-cognitive processes.

Concept Mapping in Mathematics

Author: Karoline Afamasaga-Fuata'i
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387891941
Format: PDF, ePub
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Concept Mapping in Mathematics: Research into Practice is the first comprehensive book on concept mapping in mathematics. It provides the reader with an understanding of how the meta-cognitive tool, namely, hierarchical concept maps, and the process of concept mapping can be used innovatively and strategically to improve planning, teaching, learning, and assessment at different educational levels. This collection of research articles examines the usefulness of concept maps in the educational setting, with applications and examples ranging from primary grade classrooms through secondary mathematics to pre-service teacher education, undergraduate mathematics and post-graduate mathematics education. A second meta-cognitive tool, called vee diagrams, is also critically examined by two authors, particularly its value in improving mathematical problem solving. Thematically, the book flows from a historical development overview of concept mapping in the sciences to applications of concept mapping in mathematics by teachers and pre-service teachers as a means of analyzing mathematics topics, planning for instruction and designing assessment tasks including applications by school and university students as learning and review tools. This book provides case studies and resources that have been field tested with school and university students alike. The findings presented have implications for enriching mathematics learning and making problem solving more accessible and meaningful for students. The theoretical underpinnings of concept mapping and of the studies in the book include Ausubel’s cognitive theory of meaningful learning, constructivist and Vygotskian psychology to name a few. There is evidence particularly from international studies such as PISA and TIMSS and mathematics education research, which suggest that students’ mathematical literacy and problem solving skills can be enhanced through students collaborating and interacting as they work, discuss and communicate mathematically. This book proposes the meta-cognitive strategy of concept mapping as one viable means of promoting, communicating and explicating students’ mathematical thinking and reasoning publicly in a social setting (e.g., mathematics classrooms) as they engage in mathematical dialogues and discussions. Concept Mapping in Mathematics: Research into Practice is of interest to researchers, graduate students, teacher educators and professionals in mathematics education.

Acquisition of Complex Arithmetic Skills and Higher Order Mathematics Concepts

Author: David C. Geary
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128133686
Format: PDF, ePub
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Acquisition of Complex Arithmetic Skills and Higher-Order Mathematics Concepts focuses on typical and atypical learning of complex arithmetic skills and higher-order math concepts. As part of the series Mathematical Cognition and Learning, this volume covers recent advances in the understanding of children’s developing competencies with whole-number arithmetic, fractions, and rational numbers. Each chapter covers these topics from multiple perspectives, including genetic disorders, cognition, instruction, and neural networks. Covers innovative measures and recent methodological advances in mathematical thinking and learning Contains contributions that improve instruction and education in these domains Informs policy aimed at increasing the level of mathematical proficiency in the general public

Key Concepts in Healthcare Education

Author: Annette McIntosh-Scott
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1446243478
Format: PDF, Docs
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Key Concepts in Healthcare Education is a guide to the key theories, issues and practical considerations involved in healthcare education in the 21st century. It is aimed at those studying to be educators in both academic and practice settings, as well as supporting the continuing professional development of more experienced lecturers and practice educators. The book can be used as a reference source, a platform for further study and an essential text. The book comprises 40 succinct chapters each covering a topic and featuring - a definition of the concept - key points - discussion of the main issues - a case study to illustrate the application to practice, and - suggestions for further reading. For those developing or enhancing their knowledge and skills in education and mentorship in healthcare, Key Concepts in Healthcare Education is the ideal companion to learning.

Exemplar Based Knowledge Acquisition

Author: Ray Bareiss
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483216373
Format: PDF, ePub
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Exemplar-Based Knowledge Acquisition: A Unified Approach to Concept Representation, Classification, and Learning covers the fundamental issues in cognitive science and the technology for solving real problems. This text contains six chapters and begins with a description of the rationale for the design of Protos Approach, its construction and performance. The succeeding chapters discuss how the Protos approach meets the requirements of representing concepts, using them for classification, and acquiring them from available training. These chapters also deal with the design and implementation of Protos. These topics are followed by a presentation of examples of the application of Protos to audiology and evaluate its performance. The final chapters survey related work in the areas of case-based reasoning and automated knowledge acquisition and the contributions of Protos approach. This book will be of great value to psychologists, psychiatrists, and researchers in the field of artificial intelligence.

Aging and Skilled Performance

Author: Wendy A. Rogers
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780805819106
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The term "skill" encompasses an array of topics and issues. For example, individuals are skilled in a variety of domains such as chess, typing, air traffic control, or knitting; researchers study skill in a variety of ways, including speed of acquisition, accuracy of performance, and retention over time; and there are a variety of approaches to the study of skill such as computer modeling or experimental analysis. Contributing to the understanding of whether, how, when, and why skills may decline as a function of age is the goal of this volume. This book is based on the Aging and Skill Conference sponsored by the Center for Applied Cognitive Research on Aging. The broad focus of the conference was to discuss cognitive theories underlying age-related skill acquisition, transfer, and retention and to discuss applications of these theories to such issues as age-adaptive training, compensatory strategies and devices, and utilization of new and existing technology. The contributors were asked to discuss the cognitive theory relevant to their topic, explain how the theory informs the field about aging, examine where gaps exist among general cognitive theory in this area and theories of aging, and demonstrate the practical relevance of the theory to enhancing or enabling activities of daily living--for work, home, or leisure--for older adults. This is the first book to focus exclusively on aging and skill. It covers a range of abilities, provides the theoretical basis for the current status of age-related differences in skill, and offers direct evidence of the applicability of research on proficiency to aspects of daily living. Each chapter was written either by an expert in the field of aging, or by an expert in the field of skill--many expert in both areas.