The Acquisition and Retention of Knowledge A Cognitive View

Author: D.P. Ausubel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401594546
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
In 1963 an initial attempt was made in my The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning to present a cognitive theory of meaningful as opposed to rote verbal learning. It was based on the proposition that the acquisition and retention of knowl edge (particularly of verbal knowledge as, for example, in school, or subject-matter learning) is the product of an active, integrative, interactional process between instructional material (subject matter) and relevant ideas in the leamer's cognitive structure to which the new ideas are relatable in particular ways. This book is a full-scale revision of my 1963 monograph, The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning, in the sense that it addresses the major aforementioned and hitherto unmet goals by providing for an expansion, clarification, differentiation, and sharper focusing of the principal psychological variables and processes involved in meaningful learning and retention, i.e., for their interrelationships and interactions leading to the generation of new meanings in the individual learner. The preparation of this new monograph was largely necessitated by the virtual collapse of the neobe havioristic theoretical orientation to learning during the previous forty years; and by the meteoric rise in the seventies and beyond of constructivist approaches to learning theory.

The Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills for Taskwork and Teamwork to Control Complex Technical Systems

Author: Annette Kluge
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400750498
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
This book provides the first comprehensive literature review on the acquisition and retention of complex skills in High Reliability Organizations. Based on this review, it introduces a theoretical model of how skill and knowledge acquisition for complex tasks is accomplished and shows how this model can be used to derive training methods and instructional techniques. Successful acquisition and retention of complex technical skills within High Reliability Organizations requires a full understanding of the learning process, knowledge structure, and skill requirements associated with the effective operation and management of technology. For researchers and for organizations, the understanding of these processes is vital for designing training programs as well as for reducing errors with severe consequences for human lives and the environment. Until now, only theoretical fragments exist on this topic, and only a very limited number of publications actually address complex tasks in vocational/occupational settings. “The Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills for Task Work and Teamwork to Control Complex Technical Systems ” uses its literature overview and theoretical model to formulate training principles, that can be used to develop training experiments for further empirical investigations as well as training methods for applied organizational contexts.

The Long Term Retention of Knowledge and Skills

Author: Marshall J. Farr
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461210623
Format: PDF
Download Now
A. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUNDl,2 This report reviews and interprets research on the nature and magnitude of the effects of those factors which influence how well knowledge and skills (K&S) are retained over relatively long periods of nonuse. Our interest lies in the kinds of knowledge domains and skills that military personnel must master to function effectively on their jobs. The practical concern impelling this study is that K&S degradation or loss (which we will refer to as "decay") can and does occur, often and severely enough, to jeopardize military preparedness. There are occasions in all the military services when personnel who have just completed their training do not receive an opportunity to practice or use their new capabilities for weeks or months. In the case of reservists who may be called back to active duty, the period of nonuse of relevant military job skills may be counted in terms of years. B. OBJECTIVES The overall objective is to critically analyze the relevant scientific literature which relates the processes involved in learning to those of memory, taking into account the characteristics of the learner and the learning tasks. More specifically, we have focused on the following sub-objectives: 1. Identify, describe and rank the influence and the interactions of the important major variables that affect long-term retention (LTR); 1 I am indebted to Dr. Jesse Orlansky, Institute for Defense Analyses, for his encouragement and guidance through all phases of this report.

Exemplar Based Knowledge Acquisition

Author: Ray Bareiss
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483216373
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Exemplar-Based Knowledge Acquisition: A Unified Approach to Concept Representation, Classification, and Learning covers the fundamental issues in cognitive science and the technology for solving real problems. This text contains six chapters and begins with a description of the rationale for the design of Protos Approach, its construction and performance. The succeeding chapters discuss how the Protos approach meets the requirements of representing concepts, using them for classification, and acquiring them from available training. These chapters also deal with the design and implementation of Protos. These topics are followed by a presentation of examples of the application of Protos to audiology and evaluate its performance. The final chapters survey related work in the areas of case-based reasoning and automated knowledge acquisition and the contributions of Protos approach. This book will be of great value to psychologists, psychiatrists, and researchers in the field of artificial intelligence.

Concept Mapping in Mathematics

Author: Karoline Afamasaga-Fuata'i
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387891941
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Concept Mapping in Mathematics: Research into Practice is the first comprehensive book on concept mapping in mathematics. It provides the reader with an understanding of how the meta-cognitive tool, namely, hierarchical concept maps, and the process of concept mapping can be used innovatively and strategically to improve planning, teaching, learning, and assessment at different educational levels. This collection of research articles examines the usefulness of concept maps in the educational setting, with applications and examples ranging from primary grade classrooms through secondary mathematics to pre-service teacher education, undergraduate mathematics and post-graduate mathematics education. A second meta-cognitive tool, called vee diagrams, is also critically examined by two authors, particularly its value in improving mathematical problem solving. Thematically, the book flows from a historical development overview of concept mapping in the sciences to applications of concept mapping in mathematics by teachers and pre-service teachers as a means of analyzing mathematics topics, planning for instruction and designing assessment tasks including applications by school and university students as learning and review tools. This book provides case studies and resources that have been field tested with school and university students alike. The findings presented have implications for enriching mathematics learning and making problem solving more accessible and meaningful for students. The theoretical underpinnings of concept mapping and of the studies in the book include Ausubel’s cognitive theory of meaningful learning, constructivist and Vygotskian psychology to name a few. There is evidence particularly from international studies such as PISA and TIMSS and mathematics education research, which suggest that students’ mathematical literacy and problem solving skills can be enhanced through students collaborating and interacting as they work, discuss and communicate mathematically. This book proposes the meta-cognitive strategy of concept mapping as one viable means of promoting, communicating and explicating students’ mathematical thinking and reasoning publicly in a social setting (e.g., mathematics classrooms) as they engage in mathematical dialogues and discussions. Concept Mapping in Mathematics: Research into Practice is of interest to researchers, graduate students, teacher educators and professionals in mathematics education.

Key Concepts in Healthcare Education

Author: Annette McIntosh-Scott
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1446243478
Format: PDF
Download Now
Key Concepts in Healthcare Education is a guide to the key theories, issues and practical considerations involved in healthcare education in the 21st century. It is aimed at those studying to be educators in both academic and practice settings, as well as supporting the continuing professional development of more experienced lecturers and practice educators. The book can be used as a reference source, a platform for further study and an essential text. The book comprises 40 succinct chapters each covering a topic and featuring - a definition of the concept - key points - discussion of the main issues - a case study to illustrate the application to practice, and - suggestions for further reading. For those developing or enhancing their knowledge and skills in education and mentorship in healthcare, Key Concepts in Healthcare Education is the ideal companion to learning.

Learning Strategies

Author: Harold F. O'Neil
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 148326713X
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Learning Strategies describes a program of research in learning strategies initiated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1976. The goal of the program is to improve learning, decrease training time, and reduce training costs by developing and evaluating instructional materials designed to teach basic intellectual and affective skills. This book records the program's progress and suggests further avenues for research. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of the teaching and learning approaches to the improvement of education, followed by a discussion on DARPA's preliminary work on an empirically based learning-strategy training program as well as its efforts to expand and modify the program. In order to provide an intellectual foundation for this program, several fields are surveyed for potential learning strategies, namely, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, behavioral modification, and motor learning. An instructional systems development approach for learning strategies is also proposed. The final chapter deals with models of evaluation extant in education and training and discusses the specific application of transactional evaluation to the DARPA Learning Strategies Research Program. This monograph should be of interest to students, teachers, and educational psychologists.

Acquisition of Complex Arithmetic Skills and Higher Order Mathematics Concepts

Author: David C. Geary
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128133686
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Acquisition of Complex Arithmetic Skills and Higher-Order Mathematics Concepts focuses on typical and atypical learning of complex arithmetic skills and higher-order math concepts. As part of the series Mathematical Cognition and Learning, this volume covers recent advances in the understanding of children’s developing competencies with whole-number arithmetic, fractions, and rational numbers. Each chapter covers these topics from multiple perspectives, including genetic disorders, cognition, instruction, and neural networks. Covers innovative measures and recent methodological advances in mathematical thinking and learning Contains contributions that improve instruction and education in these domains Informs policy aimed at increasing the level of mathematical proficiency in the general public

Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy

Author: D. C. Phillips
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483364755
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Education is a field sometimes beset by theories-of-the-day and with easy panaceas that overpromise the degree to which they can alleviate pressing educational problems. The two-volume Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy introduces readers to theories that have stood the test of time and those that have provided the historical foundation for the best of contemporary educational theory and practice. Drawing together a team of international scholars, this invaluable reference examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them and presents them in the context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, this work offers essays on cutting-edge research and concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Features: Over 300 signed entries by trusted experts in the field are organized into two volumes and overseen by a distinguished General Editor and an international Editorial Board. Entries are followed by cross references and further reading suggestions. A Chronology of Theory within the field of education highlights developments over the centuries; a Reader’s Guide groups entries thematically, and a master Bibliography facilitates further study. The Reader’s Guide, detailed index, and cross references combine for strong search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic version. Available in a choice of print or electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy is an ideal reference for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary educational theory.

Heterogeneity of Function in Numerical Cognition

Author: Avishai Henik
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128115300
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Heterogeneity of Function in Numerical Cognition presents the latest updates on ongoing research and discussions regarding numerical cognition. With great individual differences in the development or function of numerical cognition at neuroanatomical, neuropsychological, behavioral, and interactional levels, these issues are important for the achievement of a comprehensive understanding of numerical cognition, hence its brain basis, development, breakdown in brain-injured individuals, and failures to master mathematical skills. These functions are essential for the proper development of numerical cognition. Provides an innovative reference on the emerging field of numerical cognition and the branches that converge on this diverse cognitive domain Includes an overview of the multiple disciplines that comprise numerical cognition Focuses on factors that influence numerical cognition, such as language, executive attention, memory and spatial processing Features an innovative organization with each section providing a general overview, developmental research, and evidence from neurocognitive studies