The Alchemy of Air

Author: Thomas Hager
Publisher: Broadway Books
ISBN: 9780307449993
Format: PDF
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A sweeping history of tragic genius, cutting-edge science, and the Haber-Bosch discovery that changed billions of lives--including your own. At the dawn of the twentieth century, humanity was facing global disaster: Mass starvation was about to become a reality. A call went out to the world’ s scientists to find a solution. This is the story of the two men who found it: brilliant, self-important Fritz Haber and reclusive, alcoholic Carl Bosch. Together they discovered a way to make bread out of air, built city-sized factories, and saved millions of lives. But their epochal triumph came at a price we are still paying. The Haber-Bosch process was also used to make the gunpowder and explosives that killed millions during the two world wars. Both men were vilified during their lives; both, disillusioned and disgraced, died tragically. The Alchemy of Air is the extraordinary, previously untold story of a discovery that changed the way we grow food and the way we make war–and that promises to continue shaping our lives in fundamental and dramatic ways.

The Alchemy of Air

Author: Thomas Hager
Publisher: Harmony
ISBN: 0307351785
Format: PDF
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A profile of pioneering scientists Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch describes their seminal discovery of a way to pull nitrogen out of the air to create synthetic fertilizer, a process that offered a solution to the critical food shortage confronting a growing global population but also led to the development of the gunpowder and explosives that killed millions during the World Wars. 30,000 first printing.

Rohstoffwirtschaft und gesellschaftliche Entwicklung

Author: Peter Kausch
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662488558
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Konflikte um mineralische und energetische Rohstoffe verlangen nach klugen und nachhaltigen Lösungen. Was lässt sich mit heutigen Technologien und unter den derzeitigen politischen Vorgaben bereits in absehbarer Zeit verwirklichen und was wird bereits ausprobiert? Welche Chancen haben Recycling und Substitution? Der erste Teil diskutiert in acht Kapiteln Fragen zur Verfügbarkeit primärer Ressourcen und deren Effizienz und bezieht hier Deutschland und andere europäische Länder mit ein. Sogenannte kritische Elemente – besonders wichtig für anspruchsvolle Produkte wie regenerative Energiesysteme, Kommunikations- und Transporttechnologien – stehen dabei im Vordergrund. Teil 2 widmet sich in sechs Kapiteln den zugrunde liegenden Ressourcentechnologien und -strategien. Dabei geht es darum, was Politik konstruktiv bewirken kann, und um Standortinteressen und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit, um kreative und potenziell innovative neue Lösungsansätze und die gegenseitige Beeinflussung dieser Parameter. Der abschließende Teil 3 richtet den Blick am weitesten in die Zukunft (bis 2065) und zeigt in drei Kapiteln zukünftige Herausforderungen und Lösungsansätze aus technologischer und aus gesellschaftspolitischer Sicht. Die vier Herausgeber von der TU Bergakademie Freiberg haben die Autoren danach ausgewählt, dass sie ein in sich geschlossenes Thema aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln beleuchten. So ist das Buch beinahe ein „Who is Who“ der weltweiten Spezialisten zum Thema. Es ergänzt die Titel Strategische Rohstoffe und Energie und Rohstoffe bei Springer Spektrum und fokussiert auf dem aktuellen Stand von Forschung, Technologien und gesellschaftspolitischer Entwicklung. Die einzelnen Kapitel sind aufeinander abgestimmt und miteinander durch Querverweise vernetzt. Ein ausführliches Sachverzeichnis hilft bei der Orientierung jenseits des Inhaltsverzeichnisses. Hilfreiche und optisch ansprechende Grafiken erleichtern das Verständnis der einzelnen Themen. Die Kapitel zeigen präzise die jeweiligen Informationsquellen und bieten in vielen Fällen weiterführende Literatur, die es Lesern erlaubt, noch tiefer in die Thematik einzudringen.

9 Millionen Fahrr der am Rande des Universums

Author: Michael Groß
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 352732917X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Der Wissenschaftsbetrieb gebiert so manche Eigentümlichkeit, die Michael Groß mit spitzer Feder herauspräpariert. So zur Kenntlichkeit entstellt, erscheint der Weg zu wissenschaftlichem Ruhm und technischem Fortschritt weit weniger gerade und glänzend als gemeinhin angenommen.

Nitrogen Capture

Author: Anthony S. Travis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319689630
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This monograph provides an account of how the synthetic nitrogen industry became the forerunner of the 20th-century chemical industry in Europe, the United States and Asia. Based on an earlier SpringerBrief by the same author, which focused on the period of World War I, it expands considerably on the international aspects of the development of the synthetic nitrogen industry in the decade and a half following the war, including the new technologies that rivalled the Haber-Bosch ammonia process. Travis describes the tremendous global impact of fixed nitrogen (as calcium cyanamide and ammonia), including the perceived strategic need for nitrogen (mainly for munitions), and, increasingly, its role in increasing crop yields, including in Italy under Mussolini, and in the Soviet Union under Stalin. The author also reviews the situation in Imperial Japan, including the earliest adoption of the Italian Casale ammonia process, from 1923, and the role of fixed nitrogen in the industrialization of colonial Korea from the late 1920s. Chemists, historians of science and technology, and those interested in world fertilizer production and the development of chemical industry during the first four decades of the twentieth century will find this book of considerable value.

The Chemical Century

Author: Richard J. Sundberg
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315342030
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This fascinating new volume provides a comprehensive yet concise overview of the chemical aspects of some of the major innovations and changes that occurred during the 20th century, relating chemical structures and properties to real-life applications. Developed for a course taught by the author for several years at UVA, the author covers the important and consequential developments in chemistry and explains their everyday, real-life applications. These include such topics as consumer products, fossil fuel use, polymers, agriculture, food production, nutrition, explosives, and drugs. The section Molecular Biology and Its Applications includes examples of the application of biotechnology and genetic engineering. The book answers such questions as • What does "octane number" mean? • What is "Spandex"? • What are all the ingredients in my frozen pizza and why are they there? • What is in my favorite headache remedy and how does it work? • How can medications affect mental outlook and function? • How are genetically modified organisms obtained and how are they used? Broad in scope, The Chemical Century provides understandable examples of discoveries and their applications along with brief anecdotal information on some to the major contributors and the circumstances under which the discoveries were made. Interspersed in most of the chapters are brief summaries discoveries. These sections include a variety of biographical, historical, or political/economic background pertaining to the particular subject. The major economic, environmental, and regulatory aspects are touched upon as well. For example, the book considers hydrocarbon fuels and their role in global warming; the issue of residues in foods; and multi-drug resistance and antibiotics. There is little detailed chemistry, but the material is clear in describing chemical structures and in relating those structures to the properties of the materials. The book includes numerous figures and tables to illustrate and convey complicated information. Many chemical structures, including about 50 schemes with multiple structures, are clearly and simply presented as well.

Fritz Haber

Author: Dietrich Stoltzenberg
Publisher: Vch Verlagsgesellschaft Mbh
ISBN: 9783527295739
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The chemist Fritz Haber (1868–1934) was a genius, albeit a controversial is pioneering work in thermodynamics led to the industrial synthesis of ; for this achievement he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1918. Haber′s d activities in electrochemistry and other areas of physical chemistry sti chemical research in Germany. Together with his numerous contributions arch and his involvement in the politics of science, they exerted a form nd lasting influence on science in Germany. His burning ambition and passionate patriotism – which manifested itself xample, in his unwavering advocacy of chemical weapons – made the German itz Haber one of the most controversial figures of the twentieth century ailure of his marriages with Clara Immerwahr and Charlotte Nathan is an ion of the complicated side of Fritz Haber, whose life took a tragic tur his emigration in 1933. With this book Dietrich Stoltzenberg has provided the long–awaited compr e biography of Fritz Haber. He avails himself of countless sources, some ch have never been published, to draw up a detailed and fascinating pict Fritz Haber. The book is a ′must′ for historians, scientists and everybo rested in the history of early twentieth century Germany.