Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics

Author: ASM International
Publisher: ASM International
ISBN: 1615030735
Format: PDF, Docs
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The selection and application of engineered materials is an integrated process that requires an understanding of the interaction between materials properties, manufacturing characteristics, design considerations, and the total life cycle of the product. This reference book on engineering plastics provides practical and comprehensive coverage on how the performance of plastics is characterized during design, property testing, and failure analysis. The fundamental structure and properties of plastics are reviewed for general reference, and detailed articles describe the important design factors, properties, and failure mechanisms of plastics. The effects of composition, processing, and structure are detailed in articles on the physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Other articles cover failure mechanisms such as: crazing and fracture; impact loading; fatigue failure; wear failures, moisture related failure; organic chemical related failure; photolytic degradation; and microbial degradation. Characterization of plastics in failure analysis is described with additional articles on analysis of structure, surface analysis, and fractography.

Handbook of Plastics Analysis

Author: Hubert Lobo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824755731
Format: PDF, ePub
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Plastics possess properties that have revolutionized the manufacture of products in the 20th century and beyond. It remains critical to understand their behavior throughout their life cycle, from manufacture to use and eventually to reclamation and disposal. This volume highlights the most prominent tools in physical and chemical analysis techniques and applications. A practical reference for performing measurements, solving problems, and investigating behavioral phenomena, the editors advocate a phenomenological approach, relying on case studies and illustrations to represent possible outcomes of each technique and presenting the basic governing equations where necessary.

Handbook for the Chemical Analysis of Plastic and Polymer Additives

Author: Michael Bolgar
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420044881
Format: PDF
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Most plastics and polymers used for consumer goods and technical applications contain numerous additives, many of which are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. The Handbook for the Chemical Analysis of Plastic and Polymer Additives provides a detailed reference for the analysis of additives that are most widely used in plastics and polymers. The handbook offers a unique combination of comprehensive chromatograms, mass spectral data, and analytical data in addition to environmental perspectives and regulations issued by the FDA, USEPA, EU agencies, and other groups. Unlike other resources that focus on the selection of performance-enhancing additives, this book provides the information and techniques needed to extract, identify, and quantify additives in finished goods using common and readily available laboratory techniques. This makes it an ideal reference for monitoring plastics for regulatory or internal compliance applications as well as for using analysis to troubleshoot, develop, or improve upon application-specific compounding practices and processes. Encouraging the development of protocols for analyzing plastics and polymers, this handbook presents a clear guide to viable isolation techniques and analysis methods for accurately assessing plastic and polymer mixtures as well as an up-to-date review of the most widely used and representative additives and their known toxicological impact.

Analysis of Plastics

Author: M.J. Forrest
Publisher: Smart Publications
ISBN: 1859573339
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This review outlines each technique used in plastics analysis and then illustrates which methods are applied to obtain a particular result or piece of compositional information. For example, polymer and filler identification, molecular weight determination, antidegradant quantification and surface analysis study methods are all included. The review also includes useful sections on specific areas, such as tests for plastics in contact with food, analysis of plastic laminates and fibres, and stabilisers in PVC. Around 400 abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database accompany this review, to facilitate further reading.

Plastics Failure Analysis and Prevention

Author: John Moalli
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 9780080950549
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book contains analysis of reasons that cause products to fail. General methods of product failure evaluation give powerful tools in product improvement. Such methods, discussed in the book, include practical risk analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, preliminary hazard analysis, progressive failure analysis, fault tree analysis, mean time between failures, Wohler curves, finite element analysis, cohesive zone model, crack propagation kinetics, time-temperature collectives, quantitative characterization of fatigue damage, and fracture maps. Methods of failure analysis are critical to for material improvement and they are broadly discussed in this book. Fractography of plastics is relatively a new field which has many commonalities with fractography of metals. Here various aspects of fractography of plastics and metals are compared and contrasted. Fractography application in studies of static and cycling loading of ABS is also discussed. Other methods include SEM, SAXS, FTIR, DSC, DMA, GC/MS, optical microscopy, fatigue behavior, multiaxial stress, residual stress analysis, punch resistance, creep-rupture, impact, oxidative induction time, craze testing, defect analysis, fracture toughness, activation energy of degradation. Many references are given in this book to real products and real cases of their failure. The products discussed include office equipment, automotive compressed fuel gas system, pipes, polymer blends, blow molded parts, layered, cross-ply and continuous fiber composites, printed circuits, electronic packages, hip implants, blown and multilayered films, construction materials, component housings, brake cups, composite pressure vessels, swamp coolers, electrical cables, plumbing fittings, medical devices, medical packaging, strapping tapes, balloons, marine coatings, thermal switches, pressure relief membranes, pharmaceutical products, window profiles, and bone cements.

Applied Stress Analysis of Plastics

Author: S.I. Krishnamachari
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461531101
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book is a product of the understanding I developed of stress analysis applied to plastics, while at work at L. J. Broutman and Associates (UBA) and as a lecturer in the seminars on this topic co-sponsored by UBA and Society of Plastics Engineers. I believe that by its extent and level of treatment, this book would serve as an easy-to-read desktop reference for professionals, as well as a text book at the junior or senior level in undergraduate programs. The main theme of this book is what to do with computed stress. To approach the theme effectively, I have taken the "stress category ap proach" to stress analysis. Such an approach is being successfully used in the nuclear power field. In plastics, this approach helps in the prediction of long term behavior of structures. To maintain interest I have limited derivations and proofs to a minimum, and provided them, if at all, as flow charts. In this way, I believe that one can see better the connection between the variables, assumptions, and mathematics.

Imaging and Image Analysis Applications for Plastics

Author: Behnam Pourdeyhimi
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0815518005
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The broad collection of techniques gathered in this book help illustrate material/process/property relationships for a wide selection of materials and processes in the plastics industry. With the recent increases in computing power and scope, as well as advances in software engineering, imaging has already become a universal tool. Image processing and image analysis have become common expressions are widely recognized within the scientific community. The imaging techniques employed range from visible optical methods to scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray, thermal wave infrared and atomic force microscopy. Image analysis is used to monitor/ characterize a variety of processes. Processes included within this book are: extrusion, injection molding, foam production, film manufacture, compression molding, blow molding, vulcanization, melt spinning, reactive blending, welding, conveying, composite manufacture, compounding, and thermosetting. Imaging techniques are also employed to characterize/quantify a number of important material properties. These include: fiber orientation distribution, homogeneity of mixing, the rate of spherulites growth, polymer crystallization rate, melt flow index, pore size and shape in foam, cell density in foam, void content, particle analysis in polymer blends, morphology, interparticle distance, fiber diameter, fatigue crack, crazing, scratching, surface roughness, fiber-length distribution, nucleation, oil penetration, peel adhesion, chemical resistance, droplet-fiber transition, electrical conductivity, dispersion and impurity content.

Plastics Additives

Author: J.C.J. Bart
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 1607501228
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"Cover-to-cover reading of Plastics Additives, Advanced Industrial Analysis, is recommended for both professional analysts and plastics technologists. Professor Bart’s prose style is easy to read. A professional background in analytical chemistry is not assumed. Particularly valuable is the trove of good advice as to which approach might be best in a given situation. Every department with a serious interest in additive / property relations should invest in a copy.” -- PMAD Newsletter. This industrially relevant and up-to-date resource deals with all established and emerging analytical methods for in-polymer additive analysis of plastics formulations. Quality assurance and industrial troubleshooting all benefit from direct analysis modes. Plastics Additives comprises detailed coverage of solid-state spectroscopy, thermal analysis and pyrolysis, laser techniques, surface studies and microanalysis along with process analytics, quantitative analysis and modern method development and validation applied to additives in polymers. The book is organised for quick and easy reference and is extensively illustrated with over 200 figures, 300 flow diagrams and tables to facilitate rapid understanding of this topic, and it contains 4000 references. Emphasis is on understanding (principles and characteristics) and industrial applicability.