The Ancient Central Andes

Author: Jeffrey Quilter
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317935241
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Ancient Central Andes presents a general overview of the prehistoric peoples and cultures of the Central Andes, the region now encompassing most of Peru and significant parts of Ecuador, Bolivia, northern Chile, and northwestern Argentina. The book contextualizes past and modern scholarship and provides a balanced view of current research. Two opening chapters present the intellectual, political, and practical background and history of research in the Central Andes and the spatial, temporal, and formal dimensions of the study of its past. Chapters then proceed in chronological order from remote antiquity to the Spanish Conquest. A number of important themes run through the book, including: the tension between those scholars who wish to study Peruvian antiquity on a comparative basis and those who take historicist approaches; the concept of "Lo Andino," commonly used by many specialists that assumes long-term, unchanging patterns of culture some of which are claimed to persist to the present; and culture change related to severe environmental events. Consensus opinions on interpretations are highlighted as are disputes among scholars regarding interpretations of the past. The Ancient Central Andes provides an up-to-date, objective survey of the archaeology of the Central Andes that is much needed. Students and interested readers will benefit greatly from this introduction to a key period in South America’s past.

The Evolution of Human Co operation

Author: Charles Stanish
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316851710
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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How do people living in small groups without money, markets, police and rigid social classes develop norms of economic and social cooperation that are sustainable over time? This book addresses this fundamental question and explains the origin, structure and spread of stateless societies. Using insights from game theory, ethnography and archaeology, Stanish shows how ritual - broadly defined - is the key. Ritual practices encode elaborate rules of behavior and are ingenious mechanisms of organizing society in the absence of coercive states. As well as asking why and how people choose to co-operate, Stanish also provides the theoretical framework to understand this collective action problem. He goes on to highlight the evolution of cooperation with ethnographic and archaeological data from around of the world. Merging evolutionary game theory concepts with cultural evolutionary theory, this book will appeal to those seeking a transdisciplinary approach to one of the greatest problems in human evolution.

Landscape and Politics in the Ancient Andes

Author: Scott C. Smith
Publisher: University of New Mexico Press
ISBN: 0826357105
Format: PDF
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This book is a study of the ways places are created and how they attain meaning. Smith presents archaeological data from Khonkho Wankane in the southern Lake Titicaca basin of Bolivia to explore how landscapes were imagined and constructed during processes of political centralization in this region. In particular he examines landscapes of movement and the development of powerful political and religious centers during the Late Formative period (200 BC–AD 500), just before the emergence of the urban state centered at Tiwanaku (AD 500–1100). Late Formative politico-religious centers, Smith notes, were characterized by mobile populations of agropastoralists and caravan drovers. By exploring ritual practice at Late Formative settlements, Smith provides a new way of looking at political centralization, incipient urbanism, and state formation at Tiwanaku.

Ancient Tiwanaku

Author: John Wayne Janusek
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521816359
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Tiwanaku civilization, centred on Lake Titicaca, was of pre-eminent importance in the Andean region, from approximately 500-1100, yet has attracted considerably less attention, both popular and scholarly, than the Incas who came to replace them. Archaeology has only started to focus on the Tiwanaku in a major way in the last twenty or so years; this excellent study surveys and synthesises that research. It looks at the relationship between humans and landscape in the High Andes, examines the emergence of Tinawaku as a socially complex and highly diverse civilization, includes a detailed investigation of the archaeology of the city of Tinawaku, traces the relationship between Tinawaku and neighbouring civilizations, particularly the Wari, and finally charts the collapse of the empire. Challenging yet accessible to the non-specialist, there are plenty of thought provoking conclusions with wider applications for the study of high altitude cultures.

The Archaeology of Drylands

Author: Graeme Barker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113458265X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Many dryland regions contain archaeological remains which suggest that there must have been intensive phases of settlement in what now seem to be dry and degraded environments. This book discusses successes and failures of past land use and settlement in drylands, and contributes to wider debates about desertification and the sustainability of dryland settlement.

The Global Prehistory of Human Migration

Author: Immanuel Ness
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118970586
Format: PDF, ePub
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Previously published as the first volume of The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, this work is devoted exclusively to prehistoric migration, covering all periods and places from the first hominin migrations out of Africa through the end of prehistory. Presents interdisciplinary coverage of this topic, including scholarship from the fields of archaeology, anthropology, genetics, biology, linguistics, and more Includes contributions from a diverse international team of authors, representing 17 countries and a variety of disciplines Divided into two sections, covering the Pleistocene and Holocene; each section examines human migration through chapters that focus on different regional and disciplinary lenses

The Routledge Handbook of Archaeology and Globalization

Author: Tamar Hodos
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1315448998
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This unique collection applies globalization concepts to the discipline of archaeology, using a wide range of global case studies from a group of international specialists. The volume spans from as early as 10,000 cal. BP to the modern era, analysing the relationship between material culture, complex connectivities between communities and groups, and cultural change. Each contributor considers globalization ideas explicitly to explore the socio-cultural connectivities of the past. In considering social practices shared between different historic groups, and also the expression of their respective identities, the papers in this volume illustrate the potential of globalization thinking to bridge the local and global in material culture analysis. The Routledge Handbook of Archaeology and Globalization is the first such volume to take a world archaeology approach, on a multi-period basis, in order to bring together the scope of evidence for the significance of material culture in the processes of globalization. This work thus also provides a means to understand how material culture can be used to assess the impact of global engagement in our contemporary world. As such, it will appeal to archaeologists and historians as well as social science researchers interested in the origins of globalization.

Ancient Alterity in the Andes

Author: George F. Lau
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415519217
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Ancient Alterity in the Andes is the first major treatment on ancient alterity: how people in the past regarded others. At least since the 1970s, alterity has been an influential concept in different fields, from art history, psychology and philosophy, to linguistics and ethnography. Having gained steam in concert with postmodernism's emphasis on self-reflection and discourse, it is especially significant now as a framework to understand the process of 'writing' and understanding the Other: groups, cultures and cosmologies. This book showcases this concept by illustrating how people visualised others in the past, and how it coloured their engagements with them, both physically and cognitively. Alterity has yet to see sustained treatment in archaeology due in great part to the fact that the archaeological record is not always equipped to inform on the subject. Like its kindred concepts, such as identity and ethnicity, alterity is difficult to observe also because it can be expressed at different times and scales, from the individual, family and village settings, to contexts such as nations and empires. It can also be said to 'reside' just as well in objects and individuals, as it may in a technique, action or performance. One requires a relevant, holistic data set and multiple lines of evidence. Ancient Alterity in the Andes provides just that by focusing on the great achievements of the ancient Andes during the first millennium AD, centred on a Precolumbian culture, known as Recuay (AD 1-700). Using a new framework of alterity, one based on social others (e.g., kinsfolk, animals, predators, enemies, ancestral dead), the book rethinks cultural relationships with other groups, including the Moche and Nasca civilisations of Peru's coast, the Chavín cult, and the later Wari, the first Andean empire. In revealing little known patterns in Andean prehistory the book illuminates the ways that archaeologists, in general, can examine alterity through the existing record. Ancient Alterity in the Andes is a substantial boon to the analysis and writing of past cultures, social systems and cosmologies and an important book for those wishing to understand this developing concept in archaeological theory.

Advances in Titicaca Basin Archaeology III

Author: Alexei Vranich
Publisher: University of Michigan Museum
ISBN: 9780915703784
Format: PDF
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The focus of this volume is the northern Titicaca Basin, an area once belonging to the quarter of the Inka Empire called Collasuyu. The recent explosion of archaeological projects around Lake Titicaca is reflected in the data-packed chapters of this new book. The original settlers around the lake had to adapt to living at more than 12,000 feet, but as this volume shows so well, this high-altitude environment supported a very long developmental sequence that climaxed in impressive villages with sunken courts, and towns and cities with fascinating sculptures and public buildings. The new data reported in this book come from a series of projects that will not only advance our understanding of sociopolitical evolution within Peru and Bolivia but well beyond. Every period¿from the Early Archaic period onward¿is becoming better known from the flurry of recent surveys and excavations. From this book, we learn a wide array of new things about key sites like Taraco, Pukara, Balsaspata, Qaluyu, Cancha Cancha Asiruni, Arapa, and Huancanewichinka. Lavishly illustrated and supplying data integral to understanding Andean prehistory, this is a must buy for Andeanists as well as others interested in the rise of sociopolitical complexity.

The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict

Author: Christopher Knüsel
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134677979
Format: PDF, Mobi
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If human burials were our only window onto the past, what story would they tell? Skeletal injuries constitute the most direct and unambiguous evidence for violence in the past. Whereas weapons or defenses may simply be statements of prestige or status and written sources are characteristically biased and incomplete, human remains offer clear and unequivocal evidence of physical aggression reaching as far back as we have burials to examine. Warfare is often described as ‘senseless’ and as having no place in society. Consequently, its place in social relations and societal change remains obscure. The studies in The Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict present an overview of the nature and development of human conflict from prehistory to recent times as evidenced by the remains of past people themselves in order to explore the social contexts in which such injuries were inflicted. A broadly chronological approach is taken from prehistory through to recent conflicts, however this book is not simply a catalogue of injuries illustrating weapon development or a narrative detailing ‘progress’ in warfare but rather provides a framework in which to explore both continuity and change based on a range of important themes which hold continuing relevance throughout human development.