The Apollo Guidance Computer

Author: Frank O'Brien
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441908773
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The technological marvel that facilitated the Apollo missions to the Moon was the on-board computer. In the 1960s most computers filled an entire room, but the spacecraft’s computer was required to be compact and low power. Although people today find it difficult to accept that it was possible to control a spacecraft using such a ‘primitive’ computer, it nevertheless had capabilities that are advanced even by today’s standards. This is the first book to fully describe the Apollo guidance computer’s architecture, instruction format and programs used by the astronauts. As a comprehensive account, it will span the disciplines of computer science, electrical and aerospace engineering. However, it will also be accessible to the ‘space enthusiast’. In short, the intention is for this to be the definitive account of the Apollo guidance computer. Frank O’Brien’s interest in the Apollo program began as a serious amateur historian. About 12 years ago, he began performing research and writing essays for the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, and the Apollo Flight Journal. Much of this work centered on his primary interests, the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) and the Lunar Module. These Journals are generally considered the canonical online reference on the flights to the Moon. He was then asked to assist the curatorial staff in the creation of the Cradle of Aviation Museum, on Long Island, New York, where he helped prepare the Lunar Module simulator, a LM procedure trainer and an Apollo space suit for display. He regularly lectures on the Apollo computer and related topics to diverse groups, from NASA's computer engineering conferences, the IEEE/ACM, computer festivals and university student groups.

How Apollo Flew to the Moon

Author: W. David Woods
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441971793
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Stung by the pioneering space successes of the Soviet Union - in particular, Gagarin being the first man in space, the United States gathered the best of its engineers and set itself the goal of reaching the Moon within a decade. In an expanding 2nd edition of How Apollo Flew to the Moon, David Woods tells the exciting story of how the resulting Apollo flights were conducted by following a virtual flight to the Moon and its exploration of the surface. From launch to splashdown, he hitches a ride in the incredible spaceships that took men to another world, exploring each step of the journey and detailing the enormous range of disciplines, techniques, and procedures the Apollo crews had to master. While describing the tremendous technological accomplishment involved, he adds the human dimension by calling on the testimony of the people who were there at the time. He provides a wealth of fascinating and accessible material: the role of the powerful Saturn V, the reasoning behind trajectories, the day-to-day concerns of human and spacecraft health between two worlds, the exploration of the lunar surface and the sheer daring involved in traveling to the Moon and the mid-twentieth century. Given the tremendous success of the original edition of How Apollo Flew to the Moon, the second edition will have a new chapter on surface activities, inspired by reader's comment on Amazon.com. There will also be additional detail in the existing chapters to incorporate all the feedback from the original edition, and will include larger illustrations.

Moon Lander

Author: Thomas J. Kelly
Publisher: Smithsonian Institution
ISBN: 1588343618
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Chief engineer Thomas J. Kelly gives a firsthand account of designing, building, testing, and flying the Apollo lunar module. It was, he writes, “an aerospace engineer’s dream job of the century.” Kelly’s account begins with the imaginative process of sketching solutions to a host of technical challenges with an emphasis on safety, reliability, and maintainability. He catalogs numerous test failures, including propulsion-system leaks, ascent-engine instability, stress corrosion of the aluminum alloy parts, and battery problems, as well as their fixes under the ever-present constraints of budget and schedule. He also recaptures the exhilaration of hearing Apollo 11’s Neil Armstrong report that “The Eagle has landed,” and the pride of having inadvertently provided a vital “lifeboat” for the crew of the disabled Apollo 13. From the Hardcover edition.

Digital Apollo

Author: David A. Mindell
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262266680
Format: PDF, ePub
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As Apollo 11's Lunar Module descended toward the moon under automatic control, a program alarm in the guidance computer's software nearly caused a mission abort. Neil Armstrong responded by switching off the automatic mode and taking direct control. He stopped monitoring the computer and began flying the spacecraft, relying on skill to land it and earning praise for a triumph of human over machine. In Digital Apollo, engineer-historian David Mindell takes this famous moment as a starting point for an exploration of the relationship between humans and computers in the Apollo program. In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaut in command seized control from the computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Mindell recounts the story of astronauts' desire to control their spacecraft in parallel with the history of the Apollo Guidance Computer. From the early days of aviation through the birth of spaceflight, test pilots and astronauts sought to be more than "spam in a can" despite the automatic controls, digital computers, and software developed by engineers.Digital Apollo examines the design and execution of each of the six Apollo moon landings, drawing on transcripts and data telemetry from the flights, astronaut interviews, and NASA's extensive archives. Mindell's exploration of how human pilots and automated systems worked together to achieve the ultimate in flight -- a lunar landing -- traces and reframes the debate over the future of humans and automation in space. The results have implications for any venture in which human roles seem threatened by automated systems, whether it is the work at our desktops or the future of exploration.

Countdown to a Moon Launch

Author: Jonathan H. Ward
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319177923
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Thousands of workers labored at Kennedy Space Center around the clock, seven days a week, for half a year to prepare a mission for the liftoff of Apollo 11. This is the story of what went on during those hectic six months. Countdown to a Moon Launch provides an in-depth look at the carefully choreographed workflow for an Apollo mission at KSC. Using the Apollo 11 mission as an example, readers will learn what went on day by day to transform partially completed stages and crates of parts into a ready-to-fly Saturn V. Firsthand accounts of launch pad accidents, near misses, suspected sabotage, and last-minute changes to hardware are told by more than 70 NASA employees and its contractors. A companion to Rocket Ranch, it includes many diagrams and photographs, some never before published, to illustrate all aspects of the process. NASA’s groundbreaking use of computers for testing and advanced management techniques are also covered in detail. This book will demystify the question of how NASA could build and launch Apollo missions using 1960s technology. You’ll discover that there was no magic involved – just an abundance of discipline, willpower, and creativity.

Stages to Saturn

Author: Roger E. Bilstein
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 0788181866
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A classic study of the development of the Saturn launch vehicle that took Americans to the Moon in the 1960s. This Saturn rocket was developed as a means of accomplishing President Kennedy1s 1961 commitment for the U.S. to reach the Moon before the end of the decade. This book not only tells the important story of the development of the Saturn rocket, and the people who designed and built it, but also recounts the stirring exploits of its operational life from orbital missions around Earth testing Apollo equipment to the Moon and back. Essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the development of space flight in America. Black and white photos.

Ignition

Author: John Drury Clark
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 0813599199
Format: PDF
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This newly reissued debut book in the Rutgers University Press Classics Imprint is the story of the search for a rocket propellant which could be trusted to take man into space. This search was a hazardous enterprise carried out by rival labs who worked against the known laws of nature, with no guarantee of success or safety. Acclaimed scientist and sci-fi author John Drury Clark writes with irreverent and eyewitness immediacy about the development of the explosive fuels strong enough to negate the relentless restraints of gravity. The resulting volume is as much a memoir as a work of history, sharing a behind-the-scenes view of an enterprise which eventually took men to the moon, missiles to the planets, and satellites to outer space. A classic work in the history of science, and described as “a good book on rocket stuff…that’s a really fun one” by SpaceX founder Elon Musk, readers will want to get their hands on this influential classic, available for the first time in decades.

Saturn V Flight Manual

Author: NASA
Publisher: WWW.Snowballpublishing.com
ISBN: 9781607965060
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Designed by Wernher von Braun and Arthur Rudolph at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the Saturn V rocket represents the pinnacle of 20th Century technological achievement. The only launch vehicle in history to transport astronauts beyond Low Earth Orbit, the Saturn V delivered 24 men to the moon. To this day it holds records as the tallest (363 feet), heaviest (nearly 7 million lbs.) and most powerful (over 7.6 million pounds-force of thrust) launch vehicle ever produced. It also remains one of the most reliable, achieving 12 successful launches with one partial failure - the unmanned Apollo 6 which suffered vibration damage on lift-off, resulting in a sub-standard orbit. The Saturn series of rockets resulted from Von Braun's work on the German V-2 and Jupiter series rockets. The Saturn I, a 2-stage liquid-fueled rocket, flew ten times between 1961 and 1965. A uprated version the 1B carried the first crewed Apollo flight into orbit in 1968. The Saturn V, which first flew in 1967, was a three-stage rocket. The first stage, which burned RP-1 and LOX, consisted of five F-1 engines. The second stage used five J-2 engines which burned LOX and liquid hydrogen (LH2). The third stage, based on the second stage of the Saturn 1B, carried a single J-2. The Saturn V could carry up to 262,000 pounds to Low Earth Orbit and more critically, 100,000 pounds to the Moon. Created by NASA as a single-source reference as to the characteristics and functions of the Saturn V, this manual was standard issue to the astronauts of the Apollo and Skylab eras. It contains information about the Saturn V system, range safety and instrumentation, monitoring and control, prelaunch events, and pogo oscillations. It provides a fascinating overview of the rocket that made "one giant leap for mankind" possible.

Lem Lunar Excursion Module Familiarization Manual

Author: Grumman Aircraft Engineering Co.
Publisher: Periscope Film LLC
ISBN: 9781935700661
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Designed by Grumman's brilliant Tom Kelly, the Apollo Lunar Excursion Module (or "LEM" for short) was a triumph of purpose-built engineering. In the six years 1962-1968 between drawing board and first flight, a myriad of challenges were overcome related to weight, reliability and safety. The final design, designated the Lunar Module or "LM," boasted tiny windows instead of large portholes, four legs instead of five and most famously had no seats instead relying on the astronauts' legs to cushion a lunar landing. Ten LMs made it into space including three flown in development and test missions, and six which landed on the Moon. A seventh famously saved the crew of Apollo 13 when that mission's Command Module suffered a catastrophic malfunction. Originally created for NASA by Grumman in 1964, this LEM Familiarization Manual provides an operational description of all subsystems and major components of the lunar lander. It includes sections about the LEM mission, spacecraft structure, operational subsystems, prelaunch operations, and ground support equipment."

The Saturn V F 1 Engine

Author: Anthony Young
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387096292
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The launch of Sputnik in 1957 not only began the space age, it also showed that Soviet rockets were more powerful than American ones. Within months, the US Air Force hired Rocketdyne for a feasibility study of an engine capable of delivering at least 1 million pounds of thrust. Later, NASA ran the development of this F-1 engine in order to use it to power the first stage of the Saturn V rocket that would send Apollo missions to the Moon. It is no exaggeration to say that without the F-1 engine NASA would not have been able to achieve President Kennedy’s 1961 challenge to his nation to land a man on the Moon before the decade was out.