The Attribution of Blame

Author: K.G. Shaver
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461250943
Format: PDF, Docs
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How can we identify the causes of events? What does it mean to assert that someone is responsible for a moral affront? Under what circumstances should we blame others for wrongdoing? The related, but conceptually distinct, issues of causality, responsibility, and blameworthiness that are the subject of this book play a critical role in our everyday social encounters. As very young children we learn to assert that "it wasn't my fault," or that "I didn't mean to do it." Responsibility and blame follow us into adulthood, as personal or organizational failings require explanation. Although judgments of moral accountability are quickly made and adamantly defended, the process leading to those judgments is not as simple as it might seem. Psychological research on causality and responsibility has not taken complete advantage of a long tradition of philosophical analysis of these concepts. Philosophical discussions, for their part, have not been sufficiently I1ware of the psychological realities. An assignment of blame is a social explanation. It is the outcome of a process that begins with an event having negative consequences, involves judgments about causality, personal responsibility, and possible mitigation. The result can be an assertion, or a denial, of individual blameworthiness. The purpose of this book is to develop a comprehensive theory of how people assign blame.

T T Clark Handbook to Social Identity in the New Testament

Author: J. Brian Tucker
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 0567017605
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Combining the insights of many leading New Testament scholars writing on the use of social identity theory this new reference work provides a comprehensive handbook to the construction of social identity in the New Testament. Part one examines key methodological issues and the ways in which scholars have viewed and studied social identity, including different theoretical approaches, and core areas or topics which may be used in the study of social identity, such as food, social memory, and ancient media culture. Part two presents worked examples and in-depth textual studies covering core passages from each of the New Testament books, as they relate to the construction of social identity. Adopting a case-study approach, in line with sociological methods the volume builds a picture of how identity was structured in the earliest Christ-movement. Contributors include; Philip Esler, Warren Carter, Paul Middleton, Rafael Rodriquez, and Robert Brawley.

Moral Psychology

Author: Benjamin G. Voyer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319618490
Format: PDF
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This fascinating and timely volume explores current thinking on vital topics in moral psychology, spanning the diverse disciplines that contribute to the field. Academics from cognitive science, evolutionary biology, anthropology, philosophy, and political science address ongoing and emerging questions aimed at understanding the thought processes and behaviors that underlie our moral codes—and our transgressions. Cross-cutting themes speak to individual, interpersonal, and collective morality in such areas as the development of ethical behavior, responses to violations of rules, moral judgments in the larger discourse, and universal versus specific norms. This wide-angle perspective also highlights the implications of moral psychology research for policy and justice, with cogent viewpoints from: · Philosophy: empiricism and normative questions, moral relativism. · Evolutionary biology: theories of how altruism and moral behavior evolved. · Anthropology: common moral values seen in ethnographies from different countries. · Cognitive and neural sciences: computational models of moral systems and decision-making. · Political science: politics, governance, and moral values in the public sphere. · Advice on moral psychology research—and thoughts about its future—from prominent scholars. With the goal of providing a truly multidisciplinary forum for moral psychology, this volume is sure to spark conversations across disciplines and advance the field as a whole. Sampling the breadth and depth of an equally expansive and transformative field, Moral Psychology: A Multidisciplinary Guide will find an engaged audience among psychologists, philosophers, evolutionary biologists, anthropologists, political scientists, neuroscientists, lawyers, and policymakers, as well as a more general audience interested in better understanding the complexity of moral psychology research.

Mind Morality and Magic

Author: Istvan Czachesz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317544404
Format: PDF, ePub
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The cognitive science of religion that has emerged over the last twenty years is a multidisciplinary field that often challenges established theories in anthropology and comparative religion. This new approach raises many questions for biblical studies as well. What are the cross-cultural cognitive mechanisms which explain the transmission of biblical texts? How did the local and particular cultural traditions of ancient Israel and early Christianity develop? What does the embodied and socially embedded nature of the human mind imply for the exegesis of biblical texts? "Mind, Morality and Magic" draws on a range of approaches to the study of the human mind - including memory studies, computer modeling, cognitive theories of ritual, social cognition, evolutionary psychology, biology of emotions, and research on religious experience. The volume explores how cognitive approaches to religion can shed light on classical concerns in biblical scholarship - such as the transmission of traditions, ritual and magic, and ethics - as well as uncover new questions and offer new methodologies.

The Scientific Credibility of Folk Psychology

Author: Garth J.O. Fletcher
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134787014
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The examination and evaluation of folk psychology and lay cognition has been carried out predominantly in two domains: personality and social psychology, and the philosophy of psychology. Yet, work in these two areas has largely proceeded independently. The assumption on which this volume is founded is that a proper comparison between scientific cognition and folk ways of thought rests on an adequate study of both science and folk psychology. With this in mind, the author provides an analysis of the intricate, and often hidden, links between these two spheres. In doing so, the book poses two related questions. First, what is the nature of folk psychology and how is it related to scientific psychology? Second, of what should the relationship between folk psychology and scientific psychology consist? In answering these two questions, the author draws extensively from research and arguments in social psychology and social cognition, cognitive science, and the philosophy of science. The interdisciplinary approach gives the book a unique perspective that will be of interest to scholars working in social psychology, cognitive science, and philosophy of science. Written in a concise and accessible style, this volume is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students as well as a general psychological audience.

Social Justice in Human Relations Volume 2

Author: Herman Steensma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489926291
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Justice plays an important role in our culture. The topic of justice has attracted the attention of scholars all over the world. Beginning in 1985, a continuing series of international conferences on social justice in The Netherlands at which scientists present and discuss started papers, exchange information, and choose new roads to theory build ing. In this volume, a selection of papers, presented at the International Conference on Social Justice in Human Relations (Leiden, 1986) is published. There has been some refinement and improvement, thanks to the comments made by experts in the field. The chapters in this volume represent second (and, in some cases, even third or fourth) versions of the papers. As organizers of the conference and editors of this volume, we hope that the reader will be pleased by the content and the high quality of the chapters. There is some diversity, but there also are some common themes. We have organized the chapters with respect to what we think are two important themes: (1) behavioral and attitudinal reactions to (in) justice and (2) macrojustice. These categories are not mutually exclusive, for some chapters could have been placed in both categories. Still, we think the distinction between these themes has value.

Responses to Victimizations and Belief in a Just World

Author: Leo Montada
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475764189
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The preparation of this volume began with a conference held at Trier University, approximately thirty years after the publication of the first Belief in a Just World (BJW) manuscript. The location of the conference was especially appropriate given the continued interest that the Trier faculty and students had for BJW research and theory. As several chapters in this volume document, their research together with the other contributors to this volume have added to the current sophistication and status of the BJW construct. In the 1960s and 1970s Melvin Lerner, together with his students and colleagues, developed his justice motive theory. The theory of Belief in a Just World (BJW) was part of that effort. BJW theory, meanwhile in its thirties, has become very influential in social and behavioral sciences. As with every widely applied concept and theory there is a natural develop mental history that involves transformations, differentiation of facets, and efforts to identify further theoretical relationships. And, of course, that growth process will not end unless the theory ceases to develop. In this volume this growth is reconstructed along Furnham's stage model for the development of scientific concepts. The main part of the book is devoted to current trends in theory and research.

Encyclopedia of Social Psychology

Author: Roy F. Baumeister
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1452265682
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The Encyclopedia of Social Psychology is designed as a road map to this rapidly growing and important field and provides individuals with a simple, clear, jargon-free introduction. These two volumes include more than 600 entries chosen by a diverse team of experts to comprise an exhaustive list of the most important concepts. Entries provide brief, clear, and readable explanations to the vast number of ideas and concepts that make up the intellectual and scientific content in the area of social psychology.

Person perception and attribution

Author: Hans Werner Bierhoff
Publisher: Not Avail
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The special attraction of this volume lies in its cognitive approach to person perception and social interaction. Four issues are given special emphasis: first-impression formation, expectancy confirmation versus individuating processes, stereotypes, and attributions. Throughout the book a balance is sought between recent research and theory on the one hand and basic studies and approaches on the other so that a general overview of the subject is given.