The Beginnings of Western Science

Author: David C. Lindberg
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226482049
Format: PDF, Docs
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When it was first published in 1992, The Beginnings of Western Science was lauded as the first successful attempt ever to present a unified account of both ancient and medieval science in a single volume. Chronicling the development of scientific ideas, practices, and institutions from pre-Socratic Greek philosophy to late-Medieval scholasticism, David C. Lindberg surveyed all the most important themes in the history of science, including developments in cosmology, astronomy, mechanics, optics, alchemy, natural history, and medicine. In addition, he offered an illuminating account of the transmission of Greek science to medieval Islam and subsequently to medieval Europe. The Beginnings of Western Science was, and remains, a landmark in the history of science, shaping the way students and scholars understand these critically formative periods of scientific development. It reemerges here in a second edition that includes revisions on nearly every page, as well as several sections that have been completely rewritten. For example, the section on Islamic science has been thoroughly retooled to reveal the magnitude and sophistication of medieval Muslim scientific achievement. And the book now reflects a sharper awareness of the importance of Mesopotamian science for the development of Greek astronomy. In all, the second edition of The Beginnings of Western Science captures the current state of our understanding of more than two millennia of science and promises to continue to inspire both students and general readers.

The Beginnings of Western Science

Author: David C. Lindberg
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226482064
Format: PDF, ePub
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This landmark book represents the first attempt in two decades to survey the science of the ancient world, the first attempt in four decades to write a comprehensive history of medieval science, and the first attempt ever to present a full, unified account of both ancient and medieval science in a single volume. In The Beginnings of Western Science, David C. Lindberg provides a rich chronicle of the development of scientific ideas, practices, and institutions from the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers to the late-medieval scholastics. Lindberg surveys all the most important themes in the history of ancient and medieval science, including developments in cosmology, astronomy, mechanics, optics, alchemy, natural history, and medicine. He synthesizes a wealth of information in superbly organized, clearly written chapters designed to serve students, scholars, and nonspecialists alike. In addition, Lindberg offers an illuminating account of the transmission of Greek science to medieval Islam and subsequently to medieval Europe. And throughout the book he pays close attention to the cultural and institutional contexts within which scientific knowledge was created and disseminated and to the ways in which the content and practice of science were influenced by interaction with philosophy and religion. Carefully selected maps, drawings, and photographs complement the text. Lindberg's story rests on a large body of important scholarship produced by historians of science, philosophy, and religion over the past few decades. However, Lindberg does not hesitate to offer new interpretations and to hazard fresh judgments aimed at resolving long-standing historical disputes. Addressed to the general educated reader as well as to students, his book will also appeal to any scholar whose interests touch on the history of the scientific enterprise.

Raum und Wissen

Author: Jan Wöpking
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110433354
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume investigates the use of diagrams for the purposes of information. Using key scenes from Euclidian geometry and late medieval physics, it shows how diagrams interconnect space and rules, logic and epistemic surplus, double-meanings and precision, in such a way as to generate new insights. For the first time, the study integrates previously scattered notions into a systematic whole.

Geschichtsmythen ber Hispanoamerika

Author: Roland Bernhard
Publisher: V&R unipress GmbH
ISBN: 3847102044
Format: PDF
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Das Thema Hispanoamerika ist in deutschen und österreichischen Geschichtsschulbüchern aus dem ersten Jahrzehnt des 21. Jahrhunderts massiv von populären Geschichtsmythen geprägt, was eine große Kluft zwischen Schulbuchdiskurs und Fachwissenschaft zur Folge hat. Teilweise gelangten die Mythen - wie beispielsweise die Erzählung über die von Kolumbus überwundene vermeintlich flache Erde des Mittelalters - erst im 20. Jahrhundert in die Lehrwerke, was anhand einer Analyse von Schulbüchern aus vier Jahrhunderten gezeigt werden kann. Die Mythen zu Hispanoamerika und ihre verschiedenen Basisannahmen waren für verschiedene Kollektive im Laufe der Geschichte wichtige Tradierungsbedürfnisse, wurden Teil des kollektiven Bewusstseins und unhinterfragt in deutsche und österreichische Schulbücher übernommen.

Wahrheit und N tzlichkeit

Author: David Kaldewey
Publisher: transcript Verlag
ISBN: 3839425654
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Die moderne Wissenschaft definiert sich einerseits als selbstzweckhaftes Streben nach Wahrheit, andererseits hat sie zugleich den praktischen Nutzen des neuen Wissens im Blick. Die Genese und Bedeutung dieser doppelten Referenz rekonstruiert David Kaldewey mittels historisch-soziologischer Semantikanalysen. Er zeigt, wie die beiden Zielsetzungen in vielfältigen Autonomiediskursen und Praxisdiskursen kondensieren. Die Spannung zwischen diesen Diskursen erweist sich aus einer differenzierungstheoretischen Perspektive als konstitutiv für die Dynamik der modernen Wissenschaft.

Das R tsel der Donauzivilisation

Author: Harald Haarmann
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406622119
Format: PDF, ePub
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In den letzten Jahren haben Archäologen immer mehr Belege dafür gefunden, dass es zwischen dem 6. und dem 4. Jahrtausend v. Chr. auf dem Balkan eine Hochkultur gab, die bereits vor den Mesopotamiern die Schrift kannte. Harald Haarmann führt in diesem Buch erstmals umfassend in diese bisher unbekannte, in vielem noch rätselhafte alteuropäische Kultur ein. Er beschreibt Handelswege und Siedlungen, Kunst und Handwerk, Mythologie und Schrift der Donauzivilisation, geht ihren Ursprüngen am Schwarzen Meer nach und zeigt auf, welchen Einfluss sie auf die Kultur der griechischen Antike und des Vorderen Orients hatte.

Science and Religion Around the World

Author: John Hedley Brooke
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199793204
Format: PDF
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The past quarter-century has seen an explosion of interest in the history of science and religion. But all too often the scholars writing it have focused their attention almost exclusively on the Christian experience, with only passing reference to other traditions of both science and faith. At a time when religious ignorance and misunderstanding have lethal consequences, such provincialism must be avoided and, in this pioneering effort to explore the historical relations of what we now call "science" and "religion," the authors go beyond the Abrahamic traditions to examine the way nature has been understood and manipulated in regions as diverse as ancient China, India, and sub-Saharan Africa. Science and Religion around the World also provides authoritative discussions of science in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam -- as well as an exploration of the relationship between science and the loss of religious beliefs. The narratives included in this book demonstrate the value of plural perspectives and of the importance of location for the construction and perception of science-religion relations.

Contested Spaces of Nobility in Early Modern Europe

Author: Professor Charles Lipp
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409482065
Format: PDF, Docs
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In recent years scholars have increasingly challenged and reassessed the once established concept of the 'crisis of the nobility' in early-modern Europe. Offering a range of case studies from countries across Europe this collection further expands our understanding of just how the nobility adapted to the rapidly changing social, political, religious and cultural circumstances around them. By allowing readers to compare and contrast a variety of case studies across a range of national and disciplinary boundaries, a fuller - if more complex - picture emerges of the strategies and actions employed by nobles to retain their influence and wealth. The nobility exploited Renaissance science and education, disruptions caused by war and religious strife, changing political ideas and concepts, the growth of a market economy, and the evolution of centralized states in order to maintain their lineage, reputation, and position. Through an examination of the differing strategies utilized to protect their status, this collection reveals much about the fundamental role of the 'second order' in European history and how they had to redefine the social and cultural 'spaces' in which they found themselves. By using a transnational and comparative approach to the study of the European nobility, the volume offers exciting new perspectives on this important, if often misunderstood, social group.

Landscape of the Mind

Author: John F. Hoffecker
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 023151848X
Format: PDF, ePub
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In Landscape of the Mind, John F. Hoffecker explores the origin and growth of the human mind, drawing on archaeology, history, and the fossil record. He suggests that, as an indirect result of bipedal locomotion, early humans developed a feedback relationship among their hands, brains, and tools that evolved into the capacity to externalize thoughts in the form of shaped stone objects. When anatomically modern humans evolved a parallel capacity to externalize thoughts as symbolic language, individual brains within social groups became integrated into a "neocortical Internet," or super-brain, giving birth to the mind. Noting that archaeological traces of symbolism coincide with evidence of the ability to generate novel technology, Hoffecker contends that human creativity, as well as higher order consciousness, is a product of the superbrain. He equates the subsequent growth of the mind with human history, which began in Africa more than 50,000 years ago. As anatomically modern humans spread across the globe, adapting to a variety of climates and habitats, they redesigned themselves technologically and created alternative realities through tools, language, and art. Hoffecker connects the rise of civilization to a hierarchical reorganization of the super-brain, triggered by explosive population growth. Subsequent human history reflects to varying degrees the suppression of the mind's creative powers by the rigid hierarchies of nationstates and empires, constraining the further accumulation of knowledge. The modern world emerged after 1200 from the fragments of the Roman Empire, whose collapse had eliminated a central authority that could thwart innovation. Hoffecker concludes with speculation about the possibility of artificial intelligence and the consequences of a mind liberated from its organic antecedents to exist in an independent, nonbiological form.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Format: PDF
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.