The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology

Author: David Matsumoto
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521854702
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology is the first and only dictionary that surveys the broad discipline of psychology from an international, cross-cultural, and interdisciplinary focus. This focus was achieved in several ways. The managing and consulting editor boards were comprised of world-renowned scholars in psychology from many different countries, not just the United States. They reviewed and edited all of the keyword entries to make them lively and applicable across cultural contexts, incorporating the latest knowledge in contemporary international psychology. Thus entries related to culture, as well as those from all domains of psychology, are written with the broadest possible audience in mind. Also, many keywords central to contemporary psychology were incorporated that are not included in many competitors, including the Oxford and APA dictionaries.

The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology Favid Masumoto 2009

Author: Cambridge University Press
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
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PREFACE dictionary n. A book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, and the like. psychology n. The study of the mind including consciousness, perception, motivation, behavior, the biology of the nervous system in its relation to mind, scientifi c methods of studying the mind, cognition, social interactions in relation to mind, individual differences, and the application of these approaches to practical problems in organization and commerce and especially to the alleviation of suffering. It is perhaps most fi tting that a dictionary of psychology begins with defi nitions of the terms dictionary and psychology. This is the defi nition of psychology presented in this work, and it highlights several important points concerning this dictionary. First, psychology is broad. Its contents range from the microlevel neural processes that form the building blocks of thought, feeling, and action to the macrolevel social and cultural processes that bind us with our primate relatives in our evolutionary history and defi ne our collectives. For that reason, a dictionary of psychology needs to include terms and concepts related to neural structures, chemicals, transmitters, genes, and anatomy, as much as it needs to include social processes, network analysis, and cultural norms and artifacts. It also needs to include concepts related to the array of abnormal behaviors and methods related to their treatment. Second, psychology is a science. Knowledge in psychology is generated through empirical research, a conglomeration of methods that allow for the generation of theories of human behavior and the testing of hypotheses derived from those theories. This set of methods includes both qualitative and quantitative approaches, case studies as well as carefully controlled experiments, and rigorous statistical procedures and inferential decision making. All knowledge in psychology is based on such research. Thus, understanding the meaning, boundaries, and limitations of psychological knowledge requires students to have a working knowledge of psychological research methods, statistics, probability, and inference. Third, because the discipline of psychology is broad, and because it is based on science, it is a living discipline. That means that the theories, concepts, and terminology used in psychology are never static but often are in fl ux, changing across time as theories, methodologies, and knowledge change. Terms that had a certain meaning in previous years, such as borderline personality, homosexuality, and self, have different meanings today and will likely mean different things in the future. Additionally, new terms and concepts are continually being invented (e.g., psychoneuroimmunology), in keeping with the contemporary and evolving nature of psychology as a science. This dictionary captures these characteristics of psychology as a living, scientifi c discipline by focusing on several defi ning characteristics. It is comprehensive, capturing the major terms and concepts that frame the discipline of psychology, from the level of neurons to social structures and as a science. It is interdisciplinary, highlighting psychological concepts that cut behavior at its joints, whether the joints refer to social cognitive neuroscience (a term defi ned in this dictionary) or the interactions among culture, personality, and genes. And it is international and Preface xvi cross-cultural, owing to the growth of psychology around the world, the interaction between American and international approaches and perspectives, and the education of American psychology by the study and practice of psychology in other countries and cultures. In this digital age, when information concerning psychology and many other disciplines is already readily available online and in various reference texts, a relevant question is, Why produce another? The answer is very simple: because no other reference work on the fi eld of psychology captures the characteristics described previously. Many, for example, do not do justice to psychology as a science and therefore do not include references to research methodologies and statistics. This work does. Many reference works present psychology from a more clinical orientation and do not present psychology as an interdisciplinary science. This work does. And many other works present psychology mainly from an American perspective and do not present it as the global, international discipline that it is. This work does. These characteristics were accomplished in several ways, the most important of which were the recruitment and active participation of a stellar Editorial Advisory Board (EAB). Each of these individuals is an accomplished scholar in his or her own right, and we were very fortunate indeed to gain their participation in the project. They guided me in every single aspect of the production, and I was fortunate to gain many insights their wisdom and guidance provided. Next, the entire work was reviewed not only by the EAB but also by an equally stellar cast of Managing Editors. Like the EAB, all of these individuals are accomplished scholars in their own right, and indeed are some of the leading researchers in the world in their respective areas of expertise. Equally important, they are from many different countries, cultures, and perspectives and have been able to create the interdisciplinary, international, and cross-cultural fl avor in the book, not only in the selection of the keyword entries but also in their writing. Finally, we were very fortunate to have so many authors contribute their time and expertise to the project (see pages ix–xiii). All of them are excellent researchers, teachers, and scholars in psychology, and all brought their expertise to bear in making the discipline of psychology come to life in their entries. They also made their entries relevant to a global perspective, not just an American one, and accessible to the educated lay reader. These three groups of individuals worked seamlessly as a team to deliver the product you see today. The work started with the creation of the keyword list. For any reference work of this type, the selection of the keyword entries is crucial to the success of the fi nal product, and I believe that the process by which they were selected for inclusion in this work was exemplary. First, the Editorial Advisory Board and I reviewed all of the keyword entries in the various psychology dictionaries that currently exist, as well as a number of the leading textbooks used in introductory psychology. This accomplished two goals. While of course it led to an identifi cation of keywords that we could deem “standard” in the fi eld of psychology – by being cross-listed in multiple sources – it also allowed us to identify what was not included elsewhere, or that which was idiosyncratic to its source. It was at this point that the EAB and I were able to add keyword terms that we felt could accomplish the goal of making this work comprehensive and timely, terms that specifi cally addressed our goal of being international, crosscultural, and interdisciplinary. In addition, many contemporary dictionaries do not focus on the scientifi c aspects of psychology and consequently do not include terms concerning research methods or statistics. In this dictionary, however, we have made a point of including many of the terms that students of psychological science will encounter, especially concerning the numerous types of reliability and validity, various types of statistics and probability, and various experimental designs. Finally, after the EAB and I had completed our initial selection of keywords, our distinguished group of Managing Editors and authors provided us with yet additional levels of expertise, proposing new keywords within Preface xvii their areas of interests. For example, these are a sampling of the keywords included in the Cambridge Dictionary that are not included in many of the other dictionaries on the market: Behavioral endocrinology Collective self Confi gurative culture Culture assimilator training Dialectical reasoning Differential item functioning Distributive justice Ecological fallacy Ecological-level analysis Effect size Emotion theory Eta squared Face (concept of) False uniqueness effect Filial piety Fourfold point correlation Front horizontal foreshortening theory Gene expression Hardiness Hierarchical linear modeling Implicit communication Indigenous healing Individual-level analysis Intercultural adaptation Intercultural adjustment Intercultural communication Intercultural communication competence Intercultural sensitivity Item reliability Lay theories of behavioral causality Naikan therapy National character Need for cognition Neural imaging Neurocognition Normality Norm group Omega squared Omnibus test Outgroup homogeneity bias Ranked distribution Regression weight Response sets Retributive justice Social axiom Social network analysis Standardization sample Statistical artifact Statistical inference Tacit communication Terror management theory Tetrachoric correlation Ultimatum game A quick perusal of the list makes it clear that all of these terms are widely used in contemporary psychology today, owing to its interdisciplinary and cross-cultural ties and its existence as a scientifi c discipline. These entries, along with the way they were written, make this text unique and timely in the fi eld. Acknowledgments I give special thanks to the EAB for spearheading this project from its inception, for guiding me through the years that the project was active, and for helping to generate keywords, to recruit the stellar authors we have on board, and to review all of the entries. This work could not have been done without your hard work and dedication, and the many users of this work and I thank you. I give thanks also to the Managing Editors, who carefully reviewed the entries, made incredibly helpful suggestions, added new entries, and wrote entries themselves. Your work went above and beyond, and the users and I are grateful to you for your careful review and guidance. I give thanks to the amazing authors who wrote entries for us – in most cases, many entries. The project has gone through many changes from its inception, and you stuck with the project and me throughout, and I am eternally grateful for your doing so. I am indebted to many at Cambridge University Press for making this happen. Former editor Phil Laughlin fi rst approached me about this dictionary in 2001 or so, and we tinkered around with the idea for about 3 years before, in 2004, we fi nally agreed to launch this project. When Phil left the Press, the project and I were handed over to the able hands of Eric Schwartz, with whom I worked Preface xviii closely on bringing the project to fruition and who helped me manage the enormous tasks that composed the work and supported me in every way possible. Throughout these years, Frank Smith has been an incredible behindthe- scenes supporter and advocate, and I am grateful for the support he has given to the project. Back at home, I have been supported by many of my own staff who have helped in some way with this project. I thank Stephanie Hata, Shannon Pacaoa, Hyi-Sung Hwang, and Mina Park for their clerical help in managing the project. I am indebted to my colleagues, students, and assistants at the Culture and Emotion Research Laboratory at San Francisco State University, many of whom wrote entries, especially Jeff LeRoux. I also thank two of my faculty colleagues in the Department of Psychology at San Francisco State University who helped out by writing entries – David Gard and Virginia Saunders. I thank my research collaborators and friends for keeping me on my toes and keeping me current with the fi eld – Paul Ekman, Mark Frank, Dacher Keltner, Deborah Krupp, Maureen O’Sullivan, Yohtaro Takano, Jessica Tracy, Bob Willingham, Toshio Yamagishi, and Susumu Yamaguchi. I thank my wife, Mimi, for giving me the freedom to take on crazy projects such as creating a dictionary of psychology. It is virtually impossible to produce a work such as this completely without errors, especially of omissions of keywords that should be included, or of mistakes in defi nitions. I encourage all readers to let me know of keywords that they feel should be included, or of potential mistakes in the entries. Just as the discipline of psychology itself is a living entity, a dictionary of psychology should be a living work, changing across time to describe the ever-changing and dynamic nature of the fi eld and its contents. Consequently, this work should change across time as well, and I embrace suggestions for such change to improve it. Nevertheless, although it is quite clear that this work is the culmination of the efforts, hard work, and dedication of a lot of people, the errors and omissions in the work are solely mine. David Matsumoto San Francisco, California July 2008

A Dictionary of Psychology

Author: Andrew M. Colman
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199657688
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Including more than 11,000 definitions, this authoritative and up-to-date dictionary covers all branches of psychology. Clear, concise descriptions for each entry offer extensive coverage of key areas including cognition, sensation and perception, emotion and motivation, learning and skills, language, mental disorder, and research methods. The range of entries extends to related disciplines including psychoanalysis, psychiatry, the neurosciences, and statistics. Entries are extensively cross-referenced for ease of use, and cover word origins and derivations as well as definitions. More than 100 illustrations complement the text. This fourth edition has incorporated a large number of significant revisions and additions, many in response to the 2013 publication of the American Psychiatric Association's latest edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, bringing the Dictionary fully up to date with the most recent literature of the subject. In addition to the alphabetical entries, the dictionary also includes appendices covering over 800 commonly used abbreviations and symbols, as well as a list of phobias and phobic stimuli, with definitions. Comprehensive and clearly written, this dictionary is an invaluable work of reference for students, lecturers, and the general reader with an interest in psychology.

The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy

Author: Robert Audi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107015050
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This is the leading, full-scale comprehensive dictionary of philosophical terms and thinkers to appear in English in more than half a century. Written by a team of more than 550 experts and now widely translated, it contains approximately 5,000 entries ranging from short definitions to longer articles. It is designed to facilitate the understanding of philosophy at all levels and in all fields. Key features of this third edition: • 500 new entries covering Eastern as well as Western philosophy, and covering individual countries such as China, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain • Increased coverage of such growing fields as ethics and philosophy of mind • More than 100 new intellectual portraits of leading contemporary thinkers • Wider coverage of Continental philosophy • Dozens of new technical concepts in cognitive science and other areas • Enhanced cross-referencing to add context and increase understanding • Expansions in both text and index to facilitate research and browsing

The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy 2nd Edition Robert Audi 1999

Author: Cambridge University Press
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub
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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION THE WIDESPREAD POSITIVE RECEPTION of the First Edition has been gratifying, and a number of translations are proceeding, into Chinese, Italian, Korean, Russian, and Spanish at this writing. The field of philosophy has expanded, however, and even apart from that I have become aware of several respects in which the Dictionary can better serve its readers. The result is a multitude of expansions in standing entries and the addition of some four hundred new entries. This extended coverage required sixty new authors, nearly half of them from outside North America. The new entries range across the entire field of philosophy. We have made a special effort to increase our coverage of Continental philosophy and of subfields where growth is exceptionally rapid, such as ethics, philosophy of mind, and political philosophy. We have also added numerous cross-references. The cross-references are an element in the volume that many readers have said they found not only valuable in enhancing their initial understanding of an entry, but also welcome as a source of intriguing connections and as an invitation to browse. In addition to citations of many living philosophers in the Index of Names, there is now selective coverage of a number of living philosophers in separate entries. With very few exceptions, this (quite small) group includes only thinkers in their mid-sixties or older. This constraint on inclusion is in part dictated by the difficulty of providing an adequate portrait of philosophers still actively advancing their positions, and it has required omitting a number of distinguished younger philosophers still making major changes in their views. Even with much older thinkers we do not presuppose that there will be no significant developments, but only a greater likelihood of discerning a rounded position that is unlikely to be abandoned. In the difficult – and in a sense impossible – task of determining entries on living thinkers, advice was sought from both the Board and many other sources. We were also guided in part by the extent to which contributors to the First Edition relied on references to certain living thinkers. Given the Dictionary’s overall purposes and its wide audience, which includes many readers outside philosophy, selection was weighted toward writers whom many non-philosophers may want to look up, and some weight was also given to considerations of diversity. In keeping with the overall purposes of the volume and the diversity of its readers, we have also decided not to undertake the large task of covering either living contributors to highly specialized subfields – such as logic or computer theory or much of philosophy of science – or philosophers whose main contributions are to the history of philosophy. There are, however, many important philosophers in these fields. A number are cited in the Index, which also lists many of the thinkers who are mentioned by one or more contributors but are not subjects of separate entries. xxxiii In taking account of the responses from readers of the First Edition, we have tried to do as much as possible without making the Dictionary too bulky for a single volume. So much of the response has been positive that although many standing entries have been revised, we have sought to make improvements in the book mainly by adding new ones. A few readers expressed puzzlement or disappointment that we do not have a bibliography at the end of each entry. We do generally have references to primary works by the thinker being portrayed or, in some cases, secondary works noteworthy in their own right. Our policy here is shaped partly by severe space constraints and, especially given those, by a desire to avoid directing readers to inadequately representative sources or works that may soon become obsolete. It is also based on a sense of the difference between a dictionary and an encyclopedia. Granting that this difference is not sharp, a dictionary is above all definitional, whereas encyclopedias are mainly informational, historical, and bibliographical. A dictionary clarifies basic concepts in a way encyclopedias need not. Indeed, some encyclopedias are best understood with the help of a good dictionary; some are even difficult to read without one. As with the First Edition, I would be happy to receive comments or corrections and will undertake to file them and to send them to the appropriate author(s). Many of the Dictionary’s contributors, as well as a number of careful readers, sent suggested corrections, and most of the suggestions have been followed or taken into account in preparing this edition. I should reiterate that, again as with the First Edition, these years of intensive work with a cross section of the world’s best philosophers have given me a strong sense that the profession of philosophy has great vitality and intellectual strength. In both contributors and advisors, I have seen a steadfast commitment to scholarship, an abiding concern with accuracy and theoretical depth, an abundance of philosophical imagination, and a fidelity to high standards that prevails over the often alluring currents of schools or fashions or polemics. It is perhaps not appropriate for me to dedicate a collaborative volume of this kind, but if I were to do so, I would dedicate it to the contributors, in the hope that it may give to them and to all its readers some of the pleasure that the editing has given to me. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In constructing this volume over a number of years, I have benefited from more comments and reactions than I can possibly remember, and I regret any omissions in the expressions of gratitude that follow. The Board of Advisors deserves hearty thanks for a major part in the selection of new entries and new contributors. I would particularly like to thank William P. Alston, Arthur W. Burks, Fred Dretske, Terence Irwin, the late Norman Kretzmann, John Lucas, Sally McConnell-Ginet, Alexander Nehamas, Onora O’Neill, John Perry, Richard Rorty, John Searle, Raimo Tuomela, and Bas van Fraassen, many of whom repeatedly provided comments or advice. The editorial advice of Terence Moore, Executive Editor at the Press, and my regular discussions with him on matters of policy and design, have been incalculably valuable. Neither edition would have been possible without his contributions. The Second Edition has benefited from the advice of many others, including a number who helped in preparing the First Edition. Among these are John PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xxxiv Corcoran, Gary Gutting, George Schumm, Kwong-loi Shun, and Keith Yandell, all of whom provided editorial advice and recommended adding certain entries in their areas of philosophical work or revising others. Corcoran deserves a great deal of credit for both identifying and filling gaps. Comments and advice were also contributed by more people than I can name. They include Margaret Atherton, Claudio de Almeida, Lynne Rudder Baker, Joseph Bien, Noël Carroll, Roger Crisp, Wayne Davis, Philip Gasper, Berys Gaut, Lenn Goodman, Paul Griffiths, Oscar Haac, Mike Harnish, John Heil, Brad Hooker, Patricia Huntington, Dale Jacquette, Robert Kane, George Kline, Manfred Kuehn, Steven Kuhn, Brian McLaughlin, William Mann, Ausonio Marras, Al Martinich, Alfred Mele, Joseph Mendola, David W. Miller, Paul Moser, James Murphy, Louis Pojman, William Prior, Wesley Salmon, Mark Sainsbury, Charles Sayward, Jerome Schneewind, Calvin Schrag, David Sedley, Roger Shiner, Marcus Singer, Brian Skyrms, M. A. Stewart, William Wainwright, Paul Weirich, and, especially, Hugh McCann, Ernest Sosa, and J. D. Trout. Conscientious reviewers as well as colleagues and readers who contributed comments have been of help to me in expanding and revising the First Edition. Among the readers – mainly philosophers – I particularly want to thank Alasdair MacIntrye, Ruth Marcus, Dan Mueller, Eleonore Stump, and Mark van Roojen. Editorial and technical assistance was provided by a number of people. At the Press, I have received help or advice from Michael Agnes, Janis Bolster – who oversaw the entire process of correcting the proofs – Alan Gold, Kenneth Greenhall, Cathy Hennessy, Nicholas Mirra, Christine Murray, Gwen Seznec, and others. W. M. Havighurst again served as the main copyeditor for the Press; his skillful and painstaking work has been of great help throughout. Allison Nespor and my assistants in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Jonathan Evans and Xiaomei Yang, have also contributed. The support of the University of Nebraska and my colleagues in the Philosophy Department has been indispensable. I am also grateful for assistance from the Philosophy Department at Santa Clara University during my term as Distinguished Professor of the College of Arts and Sciences in 1999. As in the case of the First Edition, I owe an incalculable debt to my family. My wife, Marie-Louise, gave me both literary advice and help with organization of files and some of the many mailings. She and my children have also cheerfully tolerated the interruptions and problems that are inevitable in doing even a second edition of a work of this scope. Robert Audi Lincoln, Nebraska June 1999 PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

Dictionary of Forensic Psychology

Author: Graham Towl
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113401127X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Covers key aspects of the rapidly growing field of forensic psychology with approximately 100 entries on key terms and concepts contributed by leading academic and practicing forensic psychologists.

The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology

Author: Arthur S. Reber
Publisher: Penguin Group USA
ISBN: 9780141030241
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This updated edition includes thousands of definitions, including an appendix on phobias; information on related fields like neuroscience and social psychology; descriptions of how terms are employed, their wider connotations, and past usage; and a detailed look at key concepts. Original.

The Concise Dictionary of Psychology

Author: David Statt
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134681917
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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From atavistic to folie a deux, from engram to Weltschmerz and Seashore test, this edition of The Concise Dictionary of Psychology contains more than 1,300 references to words, phrases and eminent pioneers in psychology. Updated to take account of recent developments, each definition is clear, instructive and concise. A lean and efficient source of information, written in a straightforward and readable manner, this book will be an indispensable reference tool for students of psychology, for professionals and for people in the health and caring professions.

The Cambridge Dictionary of Scientists

Author: David Millar
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN: 052180602X
Format: PDF
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This volume is an invaluable one-stop reference book for anyone wanting a brief and accurate account of the life and work of those who created science from its beginnings to the present day. The alphabetically organized, illustrated biographical dictionary has been thoroughly revised and updated, covering over 1,500 key scientists (157 more than in the previous edition) from 40 countries. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy, mathematics, medicine, meteorology and technology are all represented and special attention is paid to pioneer women whose achievements and example opened the way to scientific careers for others. This new edition includes recent Nobel laureates, as well as winners of the Fields Medal, the mathematician's equivalent of the Nobel Prize. Illustrated with around 150 portraits, diagrams, maps and tables, and with special panel features, this book is an accessible guide to the world's prominent scientific personalities. David Millar has carried out research into the flow of polar ice sheets at the Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, and in Antarctica. He has also written on a range of science and technology topics, and edited a study of the politics of the Antarctic. His professional career has been spent in the oil industry, principally in the marketing of geoscience software. He lives in France. John Millar graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge, and has a doctorate from Imperial College, London. He worked for BP developing new geophysical methods for use in oil exploration and production. In 1994 he co-founded GroundFlow Ltd., which has developed electrokinetic surveying and logging as a new technique for imaging and mapping fluids in subsurface porous rocks.