The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology

Author: David Matsumoto
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521854702
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology is the first and only dictionary that surveys the broad discipline of psychology from an international, cross-cultural, and interdisciplinary focus. This focus was achieved in several ways. The managing and consulting editor boards were comprised of world-renowned scholars in psychology from many different countries, not just the United States. They reviewed and edited all of the keyword entries to make them lively and applicable across cultural contexts, incorporating the latest knowledge in contemporary international psychology. Thus entries related to culture, as well as those from all domains of psychology, are written with the broadest possible audience in mind. Also, many keywords central to contemporary psychology were incorporated that are not included in many competitors, including the Oxford and APA dictionaries.

The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology Favid Masumoto 2009

Author: Cambridge University Press
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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PREFACE dictionary n. A book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, and the like. psychology n. The study of the mind including consciousness, perception, motivation, behavior, the biology of the nervous system in its relation to mind, scientifi c methods of studying the mind, cognition, social interactions in relation to mind, individual differences, and the application of these approaches to practical problems in organization and commerce and especially to the alleviation of suffering. It is perhaps most fi tting that a dictionary of psychology begins with defi nitions of the terms dictionary and psychology. This is the defi nition of psychology presented in this work, and it highlights several important points concerning this dictionary. First, psychology is broad. Its contents range from the microlevel neural processes that form the building blocks of thought, feeling, and action to the macrolevel social and cultural processes that bind us with our primate relatives in our evolutionary history and defi ne our collectives. For that reason, a dictionary of psychology needs to include terms and concepts related to neural structures, chemicals, transmitters, genes, and anatomy, as much as it needs to include social processes, network analysis, and cultural norms and artifacts. It also needs to include concepts related to the array of abnormal behaviors and methods related to their treatment. Second, psychology is a science. Knowledge in psychology is generated through empirical research, a conglomeration of methods that allow for the generation of theories of human behavior and the testing of hypotheses derived from those theories. This set of methods includes both qualitative and quantitative approaches, case studies as well as carefully controlled experiments, and rigorous statistical procedures and inferential decision making. All knowledge in psychology is based on such research. Thus, understanding the meaning, boundaries, and limitations of psychological knowledge requires students to have a working knowledge of psychological research methods, statistics, probability, and inference. Third, because the discipline of psychology is broad, and because it is based on science, it is a living discipline. That means that the theories, concepts, and terminology used in psychology are never static but often are in fl ux, changing across time as theories, methodologies, and knowledge change. Terms that had a certain meaning in previous years, such as borderline personality, homosexuality, and self, have different meanings today and will likely mean different things in the future. Additionally, new terms and concepts are continually being invented (e.g., psychoneuroimmunology), in keeping with the contemporary and evolving nature of psychology as a science. This dictionary captures these characteristics of psychology as a living, scientifi c discipline by focusing on several defi ning characteristics. It is comprehensive, capturing the major terms and concepts that frame the discipline of psychology, from the level of neurons to social structures and as a science. It is interdisciplinary, highlighting psychological concepts that cut behavior at its joints, whether the joints refer to social cognitive neuroscience (a term defi ned in this dictionary) or the interactions among culture, personality, and genes. And it is international and Preface xvi cross-cultural, owing to the growth of psychology around the world, the interaction between American and international approaches and perspectives, and the education of American psychology by the study and practice of psychology in other countries and cultures. In this digital age, when information concerning psychology and many other disciplines is already readily available online and in various reference texts, a relevant question is, Why produce another? The answer is very simple: because no other reference work on the fi eld of psychology captures the characteristics described previously. Many, for example, do not do justice to psychology as a science and therefore do not include references to research methodologies and statistics. This work does. Many reference works present psychology from a more clinical orientation and do not present psychology as an interdisciplinary science. This work does. And many other works present psychology mainly from an American perspective and do not present it as the global, international discipline that it is. This work does. These characteristics were accomplished in several ways, the most important of which were the recruitment and active participation of a stellar Editorial Advisory Board (EAB). Each of these individuals is an accomplished scholar in his or her own right, and we were very fortunate indeed to gain their participation in the project. They guided me in every single aspect of the production, and I was fortunate to gain many insights their wisdom and guidance provided. Next, the entire work was reviewed not only by the EAB but also by an equally stellar cast of Managing Editors. Like the EAB, all of these individuals are accomplished scholars in their own right, and indeed are some of the leading researchers in the world in their respective areas of expertise. Equally important, they are from many different countries, cultures, and perspectives and have been able to create the interdisciplinary, international, and cross-cultural fl avor in the book, not only in the selection of the keyword entries but also in their writing. Finally, we were very fortunate to have so many authors contribute their time and expertise to the project (see pages ix–xiii). All of them are excellent researchers, teachers, and scholars in psychology, and all brought their expertise to bear in making the discipline of psychology come to life in their entries. They also made their entries relevant to a global perspective, not just an American one, and accessible to the educated lay reader. These three groups of individuals worked seamlessly as a team to deliver the product you see today. The work started with the creation of the keyword list. For any reference work of this type, the selection of the keyword entries is crucial to the success of the fi nal product, and I believe that the process by which they were selected for inclusion in this work was exemplary. First, the Editorial Advisory Board and I reviewed all of the keyword entries in the various psychology dictionaries that currently exist, as well as a number of the leading textbooks used in introductory psychology. This accomplished two goals. While of course it led to an identifi cation of keywords that we could deem “standard” in the fi eld of psychology – by being cross-listed in multiple sources – it also allowed us to identify what was not included elsewhere, or that which was idiosyncratic to its source. It was at this point that the EAB and I were able to add keyword terms that we felt could accomplish the goal of making this work comprehensive and timely, terms that specifi cally addressed our goal of being international, crosscultural, and interdisciplinary. In addition, many contemporary dictionaries do not focus on the scientifi c aspects of psychology and consequently do not include terms concerning research methods or statistics. In this dictionary, however, we have made a point of including many of the terms that students of psychological science will encounter, especially concerning the numerous types of reliability and validity, various types of statistics and probability, and various experimental designs. Finally, after the EAB and I had completed our initial selection of keywords, our distinguished group of Managing Editors and authors provided us with yet additional levels of expertise, proposing new keywords within Preface xvii their areas of interests. For example, these are a sampling of the keywords included in the Cambridge Dictionary that are not included in many of the other dictionaries on the market: Behavioral endocrinology Collective self Confi gurative culture Culture assimilator training Dialectical reasoning Differential item functioning Distributive justice Ecological fallacy Ecological-level analysis Effect size Emotion theory Eta squared Face (concept of) False uniqueness effect Filial piety Fourfold point correlation Front horizontal foreshortening theory Gene expression Hardiness Hierarchical linear modeling Implicit communication Indigenous healing Individual-level analysis Intercultural adaptation Intercultural adjustment Intercultural communication Intercultural communication competence Intercultural sensitivity Item reliability Lay theories of behavioral causality Naikan therapy National character Need for cognition Neural imaging Neurocognition Normality Norm group Omega squared Omnibus test Outgroup homogeneity bias Ranked distribution Regression weight Response sets Retributive justice Social axiom Social network analysis Standardization sample Statistical artifact Statistical inference Tacit communication Terror management theory Tetrachoric correlation Ultimatum game A quick perusal of the list makes it clear that all of these terms are widely used in contemporary psychology today, owing to its interdisciplinary and cross-cultural ties and its existence as a scientifi c discipline. These entries, along with the way they were written, make this text unique and timely in the fi eld. Acknowledgments I give special thanks to the EAB for spearheading this project from its inception, for guiding me through the years that the project was active, and for helping to generate keywords, to recruit the stellar authors we have on board, and to review all of the entries. This work could not have been done without your hard work and dedication, and the many users of this work and I thank you. I give thanks also to the Managing Editors, who carefully reviewed the entries, made incredibly helpful suggestions, added new entries, and wrote entries themselves. Your work went above and beyond, and the users and I are grateful to you for your careful review and guidance. I give thanks to the amazing authors who wrote entries for us – in most cases, many entries. The project has gone through many changes from its inception, and you stuck with the project and me throughout, and I am eternally grateful for your doing so. I am indebted to many at Cambridge University Press for making this happen. Former editor Phil Laughlin fi rst approached me about this dictionary in 2001 or so, and we tinkered around with the idea for about 3 years before, in 2004, we fi nally agreed to launch this project. When Phil left the Press, the project and I were handed over to the able hands of Eric Schwartz, with whom I worked Preface xviii closely on bringing the project to fruition and who helped me manage the enormous tasks that composed the work and supported me in every way possible. Throughout these years, Frank Smith has been an incredible behindthe- scenes supporter and advocate, and I am grateful for the support he has given to the project. Back at home, I have been supported by many of my own staff who have helped in some way with this project. I thank Stephanie Hata, Shannon Pacaoa, Hyi-Sung Hwang, and Mina Park for their clerical help in managing the project. I am indebted to my colleagues, students, and assistants at the Culture and Emotion Research Laboratory at San Francisco State University, many of whom wrote entries, especially Jeff LeRoux. I also thank two of my faculty colleagues in the Department of Psychology at San Francisco State University who helped out by writing entries – David Gard and Virginia Saunders. I thank my research collaborators and friends for keeping me on my toes and keeping me current with the fi eld – Paul Ekman, Mark Frank, Dacher Keltner, Deborah Krupp, Maureen O’Sullivan, Yohtaro Takano, Jessica Tracy, Bob Willingham, Toshio Yamagishi, and Susumu Yamaguchi. I thank my wife, Mimi, for giving me the freedom to take on crazy projects such as creating a dictionary of psychology. It is virtually impossible to produce a work such as this completely without errors, especially of omissions of keywords that should be included, or of mistakes in defi nitions. I encourage all readers to let me know of keywords that they feel should be included, or of potential mistakes in the entries. Just as the discipline of psychology itself is a living entity, a dictionary of psychology should be a living work, changing across time to describe the ever-changing and dynamic nature of the fi eld and its contents. Consequently, this work should change across time as well, and I embrace suggestions for such change to improve it. Nevertheless, although it is quite clear that this work is the culmination of the efforts, hard work, and dedication of a lot of people, the errors and omissions in the work are solely mine. David Matsumoto San Francisco, California July 2008

Elsevier s Dictionary of Psychological Theories

Author: J.E. Roeckelein
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080460642
Format: PDF
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In attempting to understand and explain various behaviour, events, and phenomena in their field, psychologists have developed and enunciated an enormous number of ‘best guesses’ or theories concerning the phenomenon in question. Such theories involve speculations and statements that range on a potency continuum from ‘strong’ to ‘weak’. The term theory, itself, has been conceived of in various ways in the psychological literature. In the present dictionary, the strategy of lumping together all the various traditional descriptive labels regarding psychologists ‘best guesses’ under the single descriptive term theory has been adopted. The descriptive labels of principle, law, theory, model, paradigm, effect, hypothesis and doctrine are attached to many of the entries, and all such descriptive labels are subsumed under the umbrella term theory. The title of this dictionary emphasizes the term theory (implying both strong and weak best guesses) and is a way of indication, overall, the contents of this comprehensive dictionary in a parsimonious and felicitous fashion. The dictionary will contain approximately 2,000 terms covering the origination, development, and evolution of various psychological concepts, as well as the historical definition, analysis, and criticisms of psychological concepts. Terms and definitions are in English. *Contains over 2,000 terms covering the origination, development and evolution of various psychological concepts *Covers a wide span of theories, from auditory, cognitive tactile and visual to humor and imagery *An essential resource for psychologists needing a single-source quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology

Author: Andrew M. Colman
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191057843
Format: PDF, Docs
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Including more than 11,000 definitions, this authoritative and up-to-date dictionary covers all branches of psychology. Clear, concise descriptions for each entry offer extensive coverage of key areas including cognition, sensation and perception, emotion and motivation, learning and skills, language, mental disorder, and research methods. The range of entries extends to related disciplines including psychoanalysis, psychiatry, the neurosciences, and statistics. Entries are extensively cross-referenced for ease of use, and cover word origins and derivations as well as definitions. More than 100 illustrations complement the text. This fourth edition has incorporated a large number of significant revisions and additions, many in response to the 2013 publication of the American Psychiatric Association's latest edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, bringing the Dictionary fully up to date with the most recent literature of the subject. In addition to the alphabetical entries, the dictionary also includes appendices covering over 800 commonly used abbreviations and symbols, as well as a list of phobias and phobic stimuli, with definitions. Comprehensive and clearly written, this dictionary is an invaluable work of reference for students, lecturers, and the general reader with an interest in psychology.

Die Strategien der Turtle Trader

Author: Curtis Faith
Publisher: FinanzBuch Verlag
ISBN: 3960920776
Format: PDF
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Es war im Jahre 1983, als der bekannte Futures Spekulant Richard Dennis mit seinem langjährigen Freund William (Bill) Eckhardt eine andauernde Diskussion über den Ursprung der Fähigkeit erfolgreichen Tradings führte. Dabei ging es um die grundlegende Frage, ob die Fähigkeit fü;r erfolgreiches Trading Naturgegeben ist oder ob dies das Resultat eines erfolgreichen Lernprozesses sei. Richard Dennis war der Überzeugung, dass es möglich sein sollte, Leute so zu unterrichten, dass diese erfolgreiche Trader werden können. Bill dagegen glaubte, dass die Fähigkeiten für erfolgreiches Trading durch die Genetik festgelegt sein und auf Begabung beruhe. Eine Wette sollte die Entscheidung bringen. Im Wallstreet Journal und im Barron ́s wurden Anzeigen geschaltet. Auf diese Annoncen meldeten sich über 1000 Probanden aus denen nur 80 zu persönlichen Gesprächen vorgeladen wurden. Letztendlich wurden nur zehn Personen ausgewählt, die in die "Geheimnisse" des Tradens eingeführt wurden. Dafür mussten sie sich verpflichten zwanzig Jahre Stillschweigen zu bewaren. Einer von ihnen war der 19 jährige Curtis Faith. Er veröffentlicht nun im FinanzBuch Verlag mit "Die Strategien der Turtle Trader" das erste Buch, welches die Legenden und Gerüchte um diese spektakuläre Geschichte entmystifizieren soll. "Die Strategien der Turtle Trader" deckt das gesamte Experiment auf und erklärt genau was ihnen gelehrt wurde und wie sie tradeten. Es gibt die Details zu einigen ihrer größten Trades und zu den Regeln, die hinter dem Timing standen, preis. So liefert es dem Leser einen Eindruck davon, welche Fähigkeiten und welches Wissen nötig sind, um Millionen in den internationalen Finanzmärkten zu verdienen.

Culture and Psychology

Author: David Matsumoto
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1133710530
Format: PDF, ePub
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CULTURE AND PSYCHOLOGY, 5E illustrates why and how psychologists should account for cultural factors in their efforts to explain and understand behavior. The authors' cross-cultural framework gives students the tools necessary for evaluating psychology from a cultural perspective, while the inclusion of the most current research highlights the relationship between culture and psychology. In addition, the text encourages students to question traditionally held beliefs and theories as and their relevance to different cultural groups today. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

A Biographical Dictionary of Psychologists Psychiatrists and Psychotherapists

Author: William Stewart
Publisher: McFarland Publishing
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book provides information on more than 400 men and women who have made significant contributions to the fields of psychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy. Each entry offers a short summary of the individual's personal life and a detailed analysis of the theories, approaches, or methodologies he or she contributed to a particular field. Also included in each entry is a brief guide to the individual's chief works of professional literature. A detailed timeline lists each person's date of birth, full name, and primary field of study, and an extensive glossary explains technical terms used throughout the work.

The Trauma Therapies

Author: John Marzillier
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191662321
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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It is well recognized that those who go through a major trauma can go on to experience psychological problems. Many seek psychological help and there is a now a range of psychotherapies specifically for those who have been through trauma. In this authoritative book John Marzillier describes and reviews the various forms of trauma therapy, examining what the therapies consist of, their research basis, their similarities and differences, and what they tell us about trauma and its effects. Designed specifically for therapists, and engagingly written, the book ranges from established therapies such as prolonged exposure, EMDR and imaginal reliving to newer developments such as mindfulness meditation, compassionate-focused therapy and energy psychology techniques. Aware that therapy is more than a collection of techniques, Marzillier discusses the nature of psychological trauma, the therapeutic relationship and what psychotherapy can offer. The domination of a quasi-medical model, notably in terms of PTSD, and of evidence-based psychotherapy has led to a misleadingly simplistic notion that effective trauma therapies are those based on exposure. This book does much to dispel this notion. For all psychotherapists and counsellors, this is a valuable book describing the many and varied trauma therapies. It shows how therapists of all persuasions can benefit from further understanding of how best to help those who have been through a major trauma.

Applied Social Science for Early Years

Author: Ewan Ingleby
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1844455726
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Applying social science subjects such as psychology, sociology, social policy and research methods to Early Years can help to raise standards and ensure good practice. These subjects inform much of the academic curriculum within many Early Years programmes and are subjects that make an important contribution to understanding children's behaviour, growth and development. The book identifies, analyses and assesses how social science enriches Early Years as opposed to regarding Early Years and social science as distinct. Each chapter imaginatively introduces the main learning objectives and includes formative activities, which apply social science to particular themes to aid students' cognitive skills.