Eine Naturgeschichte der menschlichen Moral

Author: Michael Tomasello
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 351874822X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Die Evolution des menschlichen Moralbewusstseins gehört zu den großen Rätseln der Wissenschaft. Es hat die Phantasie von Generationen von Forschern beflügelt, zahlreiche Theorien liegen auf dem Tisch, aber die Frage »Woher kommt die Moral?« ist nach wie vor offen. In Fortschreibung seiner faszinierenden Naturgeschichte des Menschen legt nun Michael Tomasello eine Antwort vor. Gestützt auf jahrzehntelange empirische Forschungen, rekonstruiert er die Entstehung des einzigartigen menschlichen Sinns für Werte und Normen als einen zweistufigen Prozess. Dieser beginnt vor einigen hunderttausend Jahren, als die frühen Menschen gemeinsame Sache machen mussten, um zu überleben; und er endet beim modernen, ultrakooperativen homo sapiens sapiens, der beides besitzt: Eine Moralität der zweiten Person, die unseren Umgang mit dem je einzelnen Gegenüber prägt, und eine gruppenbezogene »objektive« Moral, die sagt, was hier bei »uns« als gut oder gerecht gilt. In der Tradition von Mead, Kohlberg und Piaget zeigt Tomasello außerdem, wie sich die individuelle Moralentwicklung in einer bereits normengesättigten Welt vollzieht. Und so ist Eine Naturgeschichte der menschlichen Moral der derzeit wohl umfassendste Versuch zu verstehen, wie wir das geworden sind, was nur wir sind: genuin moralische Wesen.

Gerechtigkeit f r Igel

Author: Ronald Dworkin
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518780204
Format: PDF, Docs
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»Der Fuchs weiß viele Dinge, aber der Igel weiß eine große Sache.« Der griechische Dichter Archilochos hat diesen Satz formuliert, Isaiah Berlin hat ihn mit seinem Tolstoi-Essay berühmt gemacht. Aber was ist diese »eine große Sache«? Ronald Dworkin liefert eine Antwort: Es sind Werte in all ihren Erscheinungsformen. Wenn wir verstehen wollen, was Wahrheit und Schönheit sind, was dem Leben Sinn verleiht, was die Moral fordert und die Gerechtigkeit verlangt, so müssen wir der Spur jener moralischen Einstellungen nachgehen, die menschliches Denken, Fühlen und Handeln durchdringen und zu einer Einheit formen. »Gerechtigkeit für Igel« ist eines jener Bücher, wie es sie in Zeiten der Füchse – der Spezialisten und Skeptiker – immer seltener gibt: eines, das aus einem einzigen Prinzip eine ganze Welt erklären und zugleich Orientierung geben möchte.

The Philosophy of Punishment

Author: Anthony Ellis
Publisher: Andrews UK Limited
ISBN: 1845404408
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The series, St Andrews Studies in Philosophy and Public Life originates in the Centre for Ethics, Philosophy and Public Affairs, University of St Andrews and is under the general editorship of John Haldane. The series includes monographs, collections of essays and occasional anthologies of source material representing study in those areas of philosophy most relevant to topics of public importance, with the aim of advancing the contribution of philosophy in the discussion of these topics. In this volume, the author sets aside the usual division between theories of punishment that do or do not focus on retribution. In its place he proposes and explores the distinction between internalist and externalist theories. The final chapter discusses the deterrent value of punishment.

Criminalization

Author: R A Duff
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191043362
Format: PDF
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The Criminalization series arose from an interdisciplinary investigation into criminalization, focussing on the principles that might guide decisions about what kinds of conduct should be criminalized, and the forms that criminalization should take. Developing a normative theory of criminalization, the series tackles the key questions at the heart of the issue: what principles and goals should guide legislators in deciding what to criminalize? How should criminal wrongs be classified and differentiated? How should law enforcement officials apply the law's specifications of offences? The fourth book in the series examines the political morality of the criminal law, exploring general principles and theories of criminalization. Chapters provide accounts of the criminal law in the light of ambitious theories about moral and political philosophy - republicanism and contractarianism, or reflect upon on the success of important theories of criminalization by viewing them in a novel light. Ideas that are fundamental to any complete theory of the criminal law - liberty, harm, and the effect on victims - are investigated in depth. Sociological investigation of the criminal law grounds a critical investigation into the principles of criminalization, both as a legislative matter, and with respect to criminalization practices, in contemporary and historical contexts. The volume broadens our conceptions of the theory of criminalization, and clarifies the role of the series in the development of this theory. It is essential reading for all interested in legal, political, and social theories of criminalization.

International Criminal Law and Philosophy

Author: Larry May
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521191513
Format: PDF
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International Criminal Law and Philosophy is the first anthology to bring together legal and philosophical theorists to examine the normative and conceptual foundations of international criminal law. International criminal law is still an emerging field, and as it continues to develop, the elucidation of clear, consistent theoretical groundings for its practices will be crucial. The questions raised and issues addressed by the essays in this volume will aid in this important endeavor.

Fighting Corruption in Public Procurement

Author: Sope Williams-Elegbe
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1782250158
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Anti-corruption measures have firmly taken centre stage in the development agenda of international organisations as well as in developed and developing countries. One area in which corruption manifests itself is in public procurement and, as a result, States have adopted various measures to prevent and curb corruption in public procurement. One such mechanism for dealing with procurement corruption is to debar or disqualify corrupt suppliers from bidding for or otherwise obtaining government contracts. This book examines the issues and challenges raised by the debarment or disqualification of corrupt suppliers from public contracts. Implementing a disqualification mechanism in public procurement raises serious practical and conceptual difficulties, which are not always considered by legislative provisions on disqualification. Some of the problems that may arise from the use of disqualifications include determining whether a conviction for corruption ought to be a pre-requisite to disqualification, bearing in mind that corruption thrives in secret, resulting in a dearth of convictions. Another issue is determining how to balance the tension between granting adequate procedural safeguards to a supplier in disqualification proceedings and not delaying the procurement process. A further issue is determining the scope of the disqualification in the sense of determining whether it applies to firms, natural persons, subcontractors, subsidiaries or other persons related to the corrupt firm and whether disqualification will lead to the termination of existing contracts. The book compares and contrasts the legal, practical and institutional approaches to the implementation of the disqualification mechanism in the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Republic of South Africa and the World Bank.