The Character of Consciousness

Author: David J. Chalmers
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199826612
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In this book David Chalmers follows up and extends his thoughts and arguments on the nature of consciousness that he first set forth in his groundbreaking 1996 book, The Conscious Mind.

David Chalmers Suche nach einer Theorie ber das Bewusstsein

Author: Matthias Alexander Schmidt
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 366808226X
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Vordiplomarbeit aus dem Jahr 2008 im Fachbereich Philosophie - Theoretische (Erkenntnis, Wissenschaft, Logik, Sprache), Note: 1,1, Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen in Frankfurt am Main, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Die Arbeit des deutschen Philosophen und Diplom-Theologen Matthias Alexander Schmidt stellt das bisher größte Werk des australischen Philosophieprofessors David J. Chalmers „The Conscious Mind – In Search of a Fundamental Theory“ von 1996 dar. Im Rahmen eines Seminars mit dem Thema „Analytische Philosophie des Geistes“, unter der Leitung von Prof. Dr. Heinrich Watzka SJ in Sankt Georgen stattfand, entschloss der Student Matthias Alexander Schmidt, diese Materie zum Thema seiner Philosophischen Wissenschaftlichen Vordiplomarbeit zu machen. Die Aufsätze der meisten Autoren, die im Seminar gelesen wurden (u.a. Davidson, Lewis, Kim, Dretske und Frankfurt) waren im Ergebnis frustrierend, weil sie oft materialistische Ansätze vertraten, die die bewussten Erlebnisqualitäten (Qualia) nicht ernst nahmen, um sie herum definierten oder so taten, als hätten sie das Problem erklärt, ohne es überhaupt in Angriff genommen zu haben. Chalmers Theorie schien auf den ersten Blick einen viel versprechenden, authentischen Lösungsansatz bieten zu können. Vor allem sein Slogan, dass es unabdingbar sei, das Phänomen des Bewusstseins ernst zu nehmen („taking consciousness seriously“) und als nicht reduzierbare Entität neben dem Physikalischen zu betrachten sowie seine an vielen Stellen geäußerte Unsicherheit über die tatsächliche Wahrheit seines Ansatzes machten seine Argumentation glaubwürdig und sympathisch. Chalmers nimmt die bewussten Erlebnisqualitäten als eigenständiges Phänomen ernst und versucht, mithilfe einer Theorie, die Supervenienz, funktionale Zustände und Information kombiniert, zu zeigen, dass der Materialismus falsch ist. Er versucht, sich einer Erklärung des phänomenalen Bewusstseins zu nähern und nimmt dabei teils sehr gewagte Gedankenexperimente und einige hoch spekulativer Annahmen zuhilfe. Er räumt immer wieder ein, dass seine Hypothesen weit von einer abschließenden Theorie entfernt seien. Es seien dafür noch zu viele Fragen unbeantwortet. Diese Arbeit konzentriert sich darauf, Chalmers Werk und den Argumentationsgang verständlich darzustellen. Dabei hat der Autor einige englische Begriffe unübersetzt gelassen und Zitate vollständig in englischer Sprache wiedergegeben.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mind

Author: Brian McLaughlin
Publisher: Clarendon Press
ISBN: 0199262616
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The study of the mind has always been one of the main preoccupations of philosophers, and has been a booming area of research in recent decades, with remarkable advances in psychology and neuroscience. Oxford University Press now presents the most authoritative and comprehensive guide ever published to the philosophy of mind. An outstanding international team of contributors offer 45 specially written critical surveys of a wide range of topics relating to the mind. The first two sections cover the place of the mind in the natural world: its ontological status, how it fits into the causal fabric of the universe, and the nature of consciousness. The third section focuses on the much-debated subjects of content and intentionality. The fourth section examines a variety of mental capacities, including memory, imagination, and emotion. The fifth section looks at epistemic issues, in particular regarding knowledge of one's own and other minds. The volume concludes with a section on self, personhood, and agency. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mind will be an invaluable resource for advanced students and scholars of philosophy, and also for researchers in neighbouring disciplines seeking a high-level survey of the state of the art in this flourishing field.

Consciousness and Physicalism

Author: Andreas Elpidorou
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317402073
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Consciousness and Physicalism: A Defense of a Research Program explores the nature of consciousness and its place in the world, offering a revisionist account of what it means to say that consciousness is nothing over and above the physical. By synthesizing work in the philosophy of mind, metaphysics, and philosophy of science from the last twenty years and forging a dialogue with contemporary research in the empirical sciences of the mind, Andreas Elpidorou and Guy Dove advance and defend a novel formulation of physicalism. Although physicalism has been traditionally understood to be a metaphysical thesis, Elpidorou and Dove argue that there is an alternative and indeed preferable understanding of physicalism that both renders physicalism a scientifically informed explanatory project and allows us to make important progress in addressing the ontological problem of consciousness. Physicalism, Elpidorou and Dove hold, is best viewed not as a thesis (metaphysical or otherwise) but as an interdisciplinary research program that aims to compositionally explain all natural phenomena that are central to our understanding of our place in nature. Consciousness and Physicalism is replete with philosophical arguments and informed, through and through, by findings in many areas of scientific research. It advances the debate regarding the ontological status of consciousness. It will interest students and scholars in philosophy of mind, metaphysics, philosophy of cognitive science, and philosophy of science. And it will challenge both foes and friends of physicalism.

Introspection and Consciousness

Author: Declan Smithies
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199744793
Format: PDF
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The topic of introspection stands at the interface between questions in epistemology about the nature of self-knowledge and questions in the philosophy of mind about the nature of consciousness. What is the nature of introspection such that it provides us with a distinctive way of knowing about our own conscious mental states? And what is the nature of consciousness such that we can know about our own conscious mental states by introspection? How should we understand the relationship between consciousness and introspective self-knowledge? Should we explain consciousness in terms of introspective self-knowledge or vice versa? Until recently, questions in epistemology and the philosophy of mind were pursued largely in isolation from one another. This volume aims to integrate these two lines of research by bringing together fourteen new essays and one reprinted essay on the relationship between introspection, self-knowledge, and consciousness.

Consciousness and Mind

Author: David M. Rosenthal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198236972
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This volume gathers together the work of David Rosenthal on the philosophical study of consciousness from the past 20 years and represents his theory of consciousness as higher-order thought. An introduction draws out the connections between the essays and highlights their implications.

The Character of Mind

Author: Colin McGinn
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780198752097
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Of what nature is the mind? So Colin McGinn starts his first chapter, and this is his guiding question. He pursues the answer with a boldness and provocativeness rarely encountered in philosophical writing. As he explains, `my aim has been to give the reader something definite and stimulating to think about, rather than to present a cautious and disinterested survey of the state of the subject'. The Character of Mind provides a general introduction to the philosophy of mind, covering all the main topics: the mindbody problem, the nature of acquaintance, the relation between thought and language, agency, the self. In particular, Colin McGinn addresses the issue of consciousness, and the difficulty of combining the two very different perspectives on the mind that arise from introspection and from the observation of other people. His aim throughout is to identify the recalcitrant problems clearly, and to suggest fruitful approaches to their solutions, always avoiding facileanswers. The second edition of this classic book adds three completely new chapters on consciousness, mental content, and cognitive science, bringing it abreast of current developments. A distinctive viewpoint is adopted, stressing consciousness, but the intention is still to come to grips with the underlying philosophical problems, accessibly articulating the deep difficulties we face in theorizing about the mind. From the reviews of the first edition: `a very good introduction tothe philosophy of mind. . . . written with confidence and authority . . . a fine text for an undergraduate course.' Jonathan Lear, Times Literary Supplement `a lucid and impressive discussion . . . to be recommended to students and professionals alike . . . brilliant book.' Brian O'Shaughnessy, London Review of Books `clear, stimulating and thought-provoking.' Bernard Harrison, Philosophy `an impressive piece of work--tough, elegant, ingenious, argumentative and controversial.'Nicholas Everitt, Times Higher Educational Supplement

Metaphysik

Author: Aristoteles
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3843046638
Format: PDF, Docs
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Aristoteles: Metaphysik Entstanden zwischen 348 und 322 v. Chr. Erstdruck: Venedig 1498. Erste vollständige deutsche Übersetzung durch Julius Rieckher, Stuttgart 1860. Der Text folgt der Übersetzung durch Adolf Lasson von 1907, der die überlieferten Bücher der »Metaphysik« in folgender Anordnung wiedergegeben hat: II. Buch [α] S. 1-5. – I. Buch [Α] S. 6-35. – III. Buch [Β] S. 36-57. – IV. Buch [Γ] S. 58-84. – VI. Buch [Ε] S. 85-92. – VII. Buch [Ζ] S. 93-130. – VIII. Buch [Η] S. 131-141. – IX. Buch [Θ] S. 142-161. – XII. Buch [Λ] S. 162-181. – X. Buch [Ι] S. 185-206. – XI. Buch [Κ] S. 207-236. – XIII. Buch [Μ] S. 237-267. – XIV. Buch [Ν] S. 267-285. – V. Buch [Δ] S. 286-319. Vollständige Neuausgabe mit einer Biographie des Autors. Herausgegeben von Karl-Maria Guth. Berlin 2016, 2. Auflage. Textgrundlage ist die Ausgabe: Aristoteles: Metaphysik. Ins Deutsche übertragen von Adolf Lasson, Jena: Eugen Diederichs, 1907. Die Paginierung obiger Ausgabe wird in dieser Neuausgabe als Marginalie zeilengenau mitgeführt. Umschlaggestaltung von Thomas Schultz-Overhage unter Verwendung des Bildes: Aristoteles, seine Ethik haltend. Detail aus dem Fresko Die Schule von Athen von Raffael (1510–1511). Gesetzt aus der Minion Pro, 11 pt. Über den Autor: 384 v. Chr. als Sohn des Hofarztes Nikomachos in Stageira in Thrakien geboren, wird Aristoteles Mitglied von Platons »Akademie« in Athen und Lehrer des jungen Alexander (dem Großen), der ihn später in seinen Studien unterstützt. Seine Sytematisierung ist bis heute prägend, er ist neben seinem Lehrer Platon und dessen Lehrer Sokrates der dritte große Philosoph der Antike. Aristoteles stirbt 322 v. Chr. bei Chalkis auf Euböa.