The Collapse of Complex Societies

Author: Joseph Tainter
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521386739
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Dr Tainter describes nearly two dozen cases of collapse and reviews more than 2000 years of explanations. He then develops a new and far-reaching theory.

Kollaps

Author: Jared M. Diamond
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783596192588
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Beyond Collapse

Author: Ronald K. Faulseit
Publisher: SIU Press
ISBN: 0809333996
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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New approaches to collapsed complex societies. The Maya. The Romans. The great dynasties of ancient China. It is generally believed that these once mighty empires eventually crumbled and disappeared. A recent trend in archaeology, however, focusing on what happened during and after the decline of once powerful regimes has found social resilience and transformation instead of collapse. In Beyond Collapse: Archaeological Perspectives on Resilience, Revitalization, and Transformation in Complex Societies, editor Ronald K. Faulseit gathers scholars with diverse theoretical perspectives to interpret how ancient civilizations responded to various stresses, including environmental change, warfare, and the fragmentation of political institutions. Contributors discuss not only what makes societies collapse but also why some societies are resilient and others are not, as well as how societies reorganize after collapse. Putting in context issues we face today, such as climate change, social diversity, and the failure of modern states, Beyond Collapse is an essential volume for readers interested in humanenvironment interaction and in the collapse--and subsequent reorganization--of human societies.

The Archaeology and Ethnohistory of Araucanian Resilience

Author: Jacob J. Sauer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319092014
Format: PDF, Docs
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This volume examines the processes and patterns of Araucanian cultural development and resistance to foreign influences and control through the combined study of historical and ethnographic records complemented by archaeological investigation in south-central Chile. This examination is done through the lens of Resilience Theory, which has the potential to offer an interpretive framework for analyzing Araucanian culture through time and space. Resilience Theory describes “the capacity of a system to absorb disturbances and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain the same function.” The Araucanians incorporated certain Spanish material culture into their own, rejected others, and strategically restructured aspects of their political, economic, social, and ideological institutions in order to remain independent for over 350 years.

Emergence and Change in Early Urban Societies

Author: Linda Manzanilla
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489918485
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book gives an overview of different factors involved in the emergence and change in early urban societies in fourth-millennium Mesopotamia and Egypt; pre-Shang China; Classie horizon Central Mexico, Oaxaca, and the Maya Area; and Middle Horizon societies in the Andean Region. These factors range from centralized storage and redistributive econo mies, agromanagerial models, mercantile network control, confliet and conquest, conversion of military commanders into administrators, political power through monumental cosmic reproduction, and elite power through ideological change. It discusses specific archaeological data useful in theoretieal construction. In the Introduction, a discussion of different developmental processes of urban societies is made. The Eastern Anatolian example emphasizes the role played by interregional exchange networks linking the Mesopotamian plains with the Syro-Anatolian regions. The emergence of an elite is related with the control of the movement of craft goods and raw materials, more than with the appropriation of subsistence goods. The Chinese example stresses the importance of conflict provoked by demographie pressures on resources. The Mesoamerican cases relate to vast urban developments and manu facturing centers, ideological importance of monumental planning, and changing behavior of elites. The Andean cases are related either to the transformation of theocratie leadership into military administrators oe to the agricultural intensification model.

Antifragile

Author: Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Publisher: Penguin UK
ISBN: 0718197909
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Nassim Nicholas Taleb, the bestselling author of The Black Swan and one of the foremost thinkers of our time, reveals how to thrive in an uncertain world. Just as human bones get stronger when subjected to stress and tension, many things in life benefit from stress, disorder, volatility, and turmoil. What Taleb has identified and calls antifragile are things that not only gain from chaos but need it in order to survive and flourish. In The Black Swan, Taleb showed us that highly improbable and unpredictable events underlie almost everything about our world. Here Taleb stands uncertainty on its head, making it desirable, even necessary. The antifragile is beyond the resilient or robust. The resilient resists shocks and stays the same; the antifragile gets better and better. What's more, the antifragile is immune to prediction errors and protected from adverse events. Why is the city-state better than the nation-state, why is debt bad for you, and why is what we call "efficient" not efficient at all? Why do government responses and social policies protect the strong and hurt the weak? Why should you write your resignation letter before starting on the job? How did the sinking of the Titanic save lives? The book spans innovation by trial and error, life decisions, politics, urban planning, war, personal finance, economic systems and medicine, drawing on modern street wisdom and ancient sources. Antifragile is a blueprint for living in a Black Swan world. Erudite, witty, and iconoclastic, Taleb's message is revolutionary: the antifragile, and only the antifragile, will make it. Nassim Nicholas Taleb has devoted his life to problems of uncertainty, probability, and knowledge and has led three careers around this focus, as a businessman-trader, a philosophical essayist, and an academic researcher. Although he now spends most of his time working in intense seclusion in his study, in the manner of independent scholars, he is currently Distinguished Professor of Risk Engineering at New York University's Polytechnic Institute. His main subject matter is "decision making under opacity," that is, a map and a protocol on how we should live in a world we don't understand. His books Fooled by Randomness and The Black Swan have been published in thirty-three languages. Taleb believes that prizes, honorary degrees, awards, and ceremonialism debase knowledge by turning it into a spectator sport.

Wirtschaftsgeschichte

Author: Max Weber
Publisher: Duncker & Humblot
ISBN: 3428535111
Format: PDF, ePub
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»Endlich muß noch betont werden, daß Wirtschaftsgeschichte [...] nicht, wie die materialistische Geschichtsauffassung glauben machen will, identisch mit der Geschichte der gesamten Kultur überhaupt ist. Diese ist nicht ein Ausfluß, nicht lediglich eine Funktion jener; vielmehr stellt die Wirtschaftsgeschichte nur einen Unterbau dar, ohne dessen Kenntnis allerdings die fruchtbare Erforschung irgendeines der großen Gebiete der Kultur nicht denkbar ist.« (Aus dem Text)

Basiswissen Arch ologie

Author: Colin Renfrew
Publisher: Philipp Von Zabern Verlag Gmbh
ISBN: 9783805339483
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Mit mehr als 150.000 verkauften Exemplaren gilt der Band Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice im englischsprachigen Raum bereits jetzt als Standardwerk im Fach Archaologie. Diese jetzt erstmals auf Deutsch vorliegende sorgfaltig uberarbeitete und zum Teil vollig neu geschriebene Fassung ist eine ausserst gut lesbare Einfuhrung fur alle, die sich fur Archaologie interessieren und eine kompakte Darstellung der Methoden und Praxis archaologischer Arbeit suchen. Beruhmte Archaologen und Ausgrabungsstatten passieren Revue. Inhaltlich ist das Buch auf der Hohe der Forschung, auch die neuesten technischen Methoden und Technologien werden behandelt. (Philipp von Zabern 2009)