The Collapse of the Soviet Union 1985 1991

Author: David R. Marples
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317869982
Format: PDF, Docs
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Why did the Soviet Union collapse in 1991? The collapse of the Soviet Union has widely been seen as the result of the arms race and Cold War, and the failure of the Soviet side to keep pace with new technology. This book argues that the disintegration was mainly a result of two interrelated factors: the rise of the Soviet national republics, and the manipulation of the new Russian presidency by Boris Yeltsin in what became a direct power struggle between Yeltsin and the Soviet leader, Gorbachev. Written in a clear and accessible manner, the book provides: an explanation of how the national question came to dominate Soviet politics by 1990-1 analysis of the economic crisis that occurred in the late 1980s a chapter devoted to the year 1991, from the referendum to reform the Soviet Union to the unforeseen dissolution of the country by December a discussion of the personalities of and political confrontation between the two key statesman: Gorbachev and Yeltsin Also containing a Chronology, Glossary and Who's Who of key figures, The Collapse of the Soviet Union is essential reading for students of twentieth century European history.

Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse Understanding Historical Change

Author: Robert Strayer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315503964
Format: PDF
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Taking the Soviet collapse - the most cataclysmic event of the recent past - as a case study, this text engages students in the exercise of historical analysis, interpretation and explanation. In exploring the question posed by the title, the author introduces and applies such organizing concepts as great power conflict, imperial decline, revolution, ethnic conflict, colonialism, economic development, totalitarian ideology, and transition to democracy in a most accessible way. Questions and controversies, and extracts from documentary and literary sources, anchor the text at key points. This book is intended for use in history and political science courses on the Soviet Union or more generally on the 20th century.

The Soviet Union under Brezhnev

Author: William J. Tompson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317881729
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Soviet Union Under Brezhnev provides an accessible post-Soviet perspective on the history of the USSR from the mid-1960’s to the mid-1980’s. It challenges both the ‘evil empire’ image of the USSR that was widespread in the early 1980’s and the ‘stagnation’ label attached to the period by Soviet reformers under Gorbachev. The book makes use of a range of memoirs, interviews, archival documents and other sources not available before 1990 to place Brezhnev and his epoch in a broader historical context. The author: examines high politics, foreign policy and policy making explores broader social, cultural and demographic trends presents a picture of Soviet society in the crucial decades prior to the upheavals and crises of the late 1980’s While stopping well short of a full-scale rehabilitation of Brezhnev, Tompson rejects the prevailing image of the Soviet leader as a colourless non-entity, drawing attention to Brezhnev’s real political skills, as well as his faults, and to the systemic roots of many of the problems he faced.

The collapse of the Soviet Union

Author: Paul A. Winters
Publisher: Greenhaven Pr
ISBN: 9781565109971
Format: PDF, Docs
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Essays discuss events that preceded the collapse, reform attempts, the weakening of the government, and problems in the new republics

Terrorist Financing

Author: Nicholas Ridley
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857939467
Format: PDF, Kindle
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ÔIn recent years a great deal has been written about terrorism and how best to inhibit and undermine terroristÕs aspirations. Much of this literature tends to be one dimensional reflecting the experience of the author. Dr Ridley having had a long and diverse career in intelligence and in particular financial analysis has succeeded in going far beyond description of a series of war stories to providing not only a starting account of the range and character of modern terrorism, but also a knowledgeable analysis of the measures adopted around the world to combat the threat. Of critical importance, in the minds of many, has been the adoption of techniques in the main from the Òwar against drugsÓ facilitating the identification and disruption of finance. While emphasising the value of financial intelligence Dr Ridley, now as a scholar, dispassionately questions how successful this strategy has been and where it might take us. Such issues need to be aired and resolved if we are not to undermine the very values which we seek to protect.Õ Ð Barry Rider, University of Cambridge, UK ÔThis is hugely important and highly relevant contribution by a world expert, which adds to our knowledge of terrorist funding. It will make practitioners and academics alike, not to mention politicians who should be seeking their advice, stop and think.Õ Ð John Grieve, Portsmouth University, UK and former UK National Co-ordinator for Counter Terrorism ÔDr. Ridley has authored an excellent, analytical, comprehensive, and solutions-oriented book addressing the complexities of terror financing and the challenges in combating this menace. Dr. RidleyÕs unique insight, arising from substantial academic and professional experiences on combating terror financing, lends substantial credibility to the volume.Õ Ð Dean C. Alexander, Western Illinois University, US This authoritative book provides a holistic overview of terrorist groups and finances, including consideration of the necessity and differing financial needs of different groups. For over a decade international efforts by law enforcement, government and financial regulatory authorities have been deployed in combatting terrorist financing, in good faith and with dedication beyond reproach. This book surveys the methods of financing of numerous terrorist groups and organisations Ð including the Chinese and Asian dimension Ð and considers why ultimately international efforts to combat the financing of terror are failing. Nick Ridley expertly illustrates the scale of the problem by first outlining the strategies of anti terrorist financing, the pre and post 9/11 differences in scope and extent of terrorist attacks, the financial support and the national and international efforts to implement and carry out countermeasures. He then goes on to set out a detailed analysis of the apparent failure of such counter measures to date. Including operational case studies and details from the authors own experience, studies and access to law enforcement and private sector sources, this book will prove insightful for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying criminology, history and law disciplines. Those in the legal profession will also find plenty of useful information in this topical compendium.

Ballistic Knives

Author: Wolfgang Peter-Michel
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3738627804
Format: PDF, Docs
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In the 1980s, the first ballistic knives began to appear on the Western collectors market. Their sinister feature: the handle concealed a strong coil spring. After pressing a trigger, the blade was propelled over several meters and hit the target with great force. It was rumoured that these knives originated in the Soviet Union as a clandestine weapon used by the KGB or special units such as the Spetsnaz. Due to their dangerous nature, ballistic knives were banned in most countries by the end of the 1990s. Nevertheless, a German blade manufacturer began to improve the allegedly Russian design, as revealed by the prototypes shown in this book. But where did these mysterious weapons really originate? Who developed and produced them? Who used them and over what distances are they effective? Most importantly; how dangerous are ballistic knives? All these questions are investigated in this book and the main variants of ballistic knives are presented.

The Origins of the Second World War

Author: Richard Overy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317204700
Format: PDF
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Exploring the reasons why the Second World War broke out in September 1939 and why a European conflict developed into a war that spanned the globe, The Origins of the Second World War argues that this was not just ‘Hitler’s War’ but one that had its roots and origins in the decline of the old empires of Britain and France and the rise of ambitious new powers in Germany, Italy and Japan who wanted large empires of their own. This fourth edition has been revised throughout, covering the origins of the war from its background in the First World War to its expansion to embrace the Soviet Union, Japan and the United States by the end of 1941. Creating a comprehensive and analytical narrative while remaining a succinct overview of the subject, this book takes a thematic approach to the complex range of events that culminated in global warfare, discussing factors such as economic rivalry, rearmament and domestic politics and emphasising that any explanation of the outbreak of hostilities must be global in scope. Containing updated references and primary source documents alongside a glossary, a chronology of key events and a Who’s Who of important figures, this book is an invaluable introduction for any student of this fascinating period.

Lenin s Revolution

Author: David R. Marples
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317882598
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This study examines one of the key events in history, the Russian Revolution. Since the late Gorbachev period, a wealth of new material has become available to historians that has triggered intense scholarly debate on the nature of revolution. This timely new book takes account of the new scholarship, including - for example - the role of Lenin. It is argued that the intial flexibility of Lenin and the Bolshevik party allowed them to take power, but that the conduct of both changed considerably once they were obliged to take steps to maintain their authority. This book charts the Febuary Revolution, the October Revolution, the Civil War and the main individuals involved, giving a remarkable degree of clarity to the tumultuous events in Russia whose consequences the world lived with for the rest of the twentieth century.

Motherland

Author: David R. Marples
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317873866
Format: PDF, ePub
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Motherland tells the dramatic story of the rise and fall of the Soviet Union. From Lenin's virtual coup in November 1917 to Boris Yeltsin's ruthless takeover of power in 1991, the book culminates with a new view of the Yeltsin years. David Marples focuses on the evolution of Russia during the Soviet period, and the attempt to harness Russian nationalism to the avowed Soviet mission of promoting World Communism. Along the way heanalyses some of the more intensive historical debates and uncovers some of the myths perpetuated by state propaganda, especially those associated with the Great Patriotic War.

Russia in the Twentieth Century

Author: David R. Marples
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317862287
Format: PDF, Docs
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The history of Russia, as the natural successor to the Soviet Union, is of crucial importance to understanding why communism ultimately lost out to Western democracy and the free market system. David Marples presents a balanced overview of 20th century Russian history and shows that although contemporary Russia has retained many of the practices and memories of the Soviet period, it is not about to revert back to the Soviet example.