The Soviet Academy of Sciences and the Communist Party 1927 1932

Author: Loren R. Graham
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 140087551X
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No other research organization dominates the field of science in its country to the degree that the Soviet Academy of Sciences does. The coming to power of the Bolsheviks in 1917 presented Russian science with a new governmental attitude toward the place of science in national life. The Soviet Union's first five-year plan, the period of this study, was the crucial period for the Academy. During this time the Academy was transformed. Between 1927 and 1932 important decisions were reached by Soviet leaders concerning the organization, control, and planning of science; the role of science in the national economy, the position of the individual scientist, and the nature of scientific research itself. Originally published in 1967. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

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The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is the premier public resource on scientific and technological developments that impact global security. Founded by Manhattan Project Scientists, the Bulletin's iconic "Doomsday Clock" stimulates solutions for a safer world.

The Private World of Soviet Scientists from Stalin to Gorbachev

Author: Maria Rogacheva
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107196361
Format: PDF
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Rogacheva sheds new light on the complex transition of Soviet society from Stalinism into the post-Stalin era. Using the case study of Chernogolovka, one of dozens of scientific towns built in the USSR under Khrushchev, she explains what motivated scientists to participate in the Soviet project during the Cold War. Rogacheva traces the history of this scientific community from its creation in 1956 through the Brezhnev period to paint a nuanced portrait of the living conditions, political outlook, and mentality of the local scientific intelligentsia. Utilizing new archival materials and an extensive oral history project, this book argues that Soviet scientists were not merely bought off by the Soviet state, but that they bought into the idealism and social optimism of the post-Stalin regime. Many shared the regime's belief in the progressive development of Soviet society on a scientific basis, and embraced their increased autonomy, material privileges and elite status.

The Demise of the Soviet Communist Party

Author: Atsushi Ogushi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134078234
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book, based on extensive original research in previously unexplored sources, including the party archives, provides a great deal of new information on the disintegration of the Soviet communist party, in 1991 and the preceding years. It argues that, contrary to prevailing views, the party was reformable in late Soviet times, but that attempts to reform it failed: reforms succeeded in preventing the party interfering in the state body, and thereby abolished the party's traditional administrative functions, but without creating an alternative power centre, and without transforming the party from a vanguard party into a parliamentary party. It demonstrates that the party, having ceased to offer career paths for aspiring party members, thereby lost its reason for existence, that an exodus of party members then followed, which in turn caused a financial crisis; and that this financial crisis, and the resulting engagement in commercial activity, fragmented and dispersed party property. It shows how the failed coup of 1991 was led by the military rather than the party, and how having lost its reason for existence and its property, the party had no choice but to accept the reality that it was de facto dead.

Soviet Scientists and the State

Author: Peter Kneen
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780873958950
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Soviet Scientists and the State examines the constraints place upon the natural scientist in the Soviet Union. The book brings into sharp relief the social and economic consequences arising from the highly centralized character of Communist Party rule. Because conditions regarded as essential for effective scientific research conflict with the form of political control prevailing in the Soviet Union, the Soviet scientists' working environment provides a fruitful context for assessing the methods adopted by the Communist Party. This study is an excellent base from which to explore some important sources of change in contemporary Soviet politics. The book is also a survey of the present state of natural science in the U.S.S.R. Topics of concern range from the scientists' background and social characteristics, institutions, status, and leadership to their social relations and effectiveness. The relationship of the Communist Party to the scientists is examined in detail.

The Communist Party in Post Soviet Russia

Author: Luke March
Publisher: Manchester University Press
ISBN: 9780719060441
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Drawing on extensive research, Luke March details the ideology, organization, and activity of a political phenomenon which has received little in-depth analysis or scholarly consensus. He analyses the Communist Party of the Russian Federation's evolution in the context of post-Soviet political developments to provide detailed and stimulating examination of a party whose role in Russian politics is far more complex and contradictory than is generally understood.

Soviet Science under Control

Author: Jeffrey L. Roberg
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1349262900
Format: PDF, Docs
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Roberg examines the relationship between the political leadership of the Soviet Union and Soviet science. Previously, this relationship was typically characterized as one of Communist Party dominance over the sciences. He argues that the relationship between scientists and the leadership is better viewed as bi-directional. The author concludes that scientists had an influence on policy-makers in the areas of nuclear policy and human rights although not to the same degree as the Party had on science and scientists.

The Perversion Of Knowledge

Author: Dr. Vadim J. Birstein
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 078675186X
Format: PDF, ePub
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During the Soviet years, Russian science was touted as one of the greatest successes of the regime. Russian science was considered to be equal, if not superior, to that of the wealthy western nations. The Perversion of Knowledge, a history of Soviet science that focuses on its control by the KGB and the Communist Party, reveals the dark side of this glittering achievement. Based on the author’s firsthand experience as a Soviet scientist, and drawing on extensive Russian language sources not easily available to the Western reader, the book includes shocking new information on biomedical experimentation on humans as well as an examination of the pernicious effects of Trofim Lysenko’s pseudo-biology. Also included are many poignant case histories of those who collaborated and those who managed to resist, focusing on the moral choices and consequences. The text is accompanied by the author’s own translations of key archival materials, making this work an essential resource for all those with a serious interest in Russian history.

Origins of the Great Purges

Author: John Arch Getty
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521335706
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This is a study of the structure of the Soviet Communist Party in the 1930s. Based upon archival and published sources, the work describes the events in the Bolshevik Party leading up to the Great Purges of 1937-1938. Professor Getty concludes that the party bureaucracy was chaotic rather than totalitarian, and that local officials had relative autonomy within a considerably fragmented political system. The Moscow leadership, of which Stalin was the most authoritarian actor, reacted to social and political processes as much as instigating them. Because of disputes, confusion, and inefficiency, they often promoted contradictory policies. Avoiding the usual concentration on Stalin's personality, the author puts forward the controversial hypothesis that the Great Purges occurred not as the end product of a careful Stalin plan, but rather as the bloody but ad hoc result of Moscow's incremental attempts to centralise political power.