The Complementary Nature

Author: J. A. Scott Kelso
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262112914
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How the ubiquitous human tendency to polarize—either~or, nature~nurture, body~mind, yin~yang—can be explained in terms of coordination dynamics, a new conception of brain function, and how such polar opposites can be reconciled.

Dynamic Patterns

Author: J. A. Scott Kelso
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262611312
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foreword by Hermann Haken For the past twenty years Scott Kelso's research has focused on extending the physical concepts of self- organization and the mathematical tools of nonlinear dynamics to understand how human beings (and human brains) perceive, intend, learn, control, and coordinate complex behaviors. In this book Kelso proposes a new, general framework within which to connect brain, mind, and behavior.Kelso's prescription for mental life breaks dramatically with the classical computational approach that is still the operative framework for many newer psychological and neurophysiological studies. His core thesis is that the creation and evolution of patterned behavior at all levels -- from neurons to mind -- is governed by the generic processes of self-organization. Both human brain and behavior are shown to exhibit features of pattern-forming dynamical systems, including multistability, abrupt phase transitions, crises, and intermittency.Dynamic Patterns brings together different aspects of this approach to the study of human behavior, using simple experimental examples and illustrations to convey essential concepts, strategies, and methods, with a minimum of mathematics.Kelso begins with a general account of dynamic pattern formation. He then takes up behavior, focusing initially on identifying pattern-forming instabilities in human sensorimotor coordination. Moving back and forth between theory and experiment, he establishes the notion that the same pattern-forming mechanisms apply regardless of the component parts involved (parts of the body, parts of the nervous system, parts of society) and the medium through which the parts are coupled. Finally, employing the latest techniques to observe spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity, Kelso shows that the human brain is fundamentally a pattern forming dynamical system, poised on the brink of instability. Self-organization thus underlies the cooperative action of neurons that produces human behavior in all its forms.

Natural Particulars

Author: Anthony Grafton
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262071932
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This volume examines the transformation in ways of studying nature that took place in Western Europe during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Some of the essays trace particular textual traditions, while others follow the development of scholarly and professional communities. Some concentrate on the internal analysis of primary sources, while others examine the spread of practices to larger groups. Central to all is the search for a context for the increased fascination with nature, and especially with natural particulars--the details of natural forms, plants, and animals--that characterized this period. The essays also discuss how older theories and methods continued to exist; how the renewed study of classical sources introduced new problems and theories into the study of nature; how the structure of disciplines, both old and new, shaped approaches to the natural world; and how the material and practical means of disseminating knowledge helped to shape its content.Recently the history of science in early modern Europe has been both invigorated and obscured by divisions between scholars of different schools. One school tends to claim that rigorous textual analysis provides the key to the development of science, whereas others tend to focus on the social and cultural contexts within which disciplines grew. This volume challenges such divisions, suggesting that multiple historical approaches are both legitimate and mutually complementary.Contributors : Michael J. B. Allen, Ann Blair, Daniela Mugnai Carrara, Brian P. Copenhaver, Chiara Crisciani, Luc Deitz, Paula Findlen, James Hankins, Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann, John Monfasani, William Newman, Vivian Nutton, Katharine Park.

The Interdisciplinary Science of Consumption

Author: Stephanie D. Preston
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262027674
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Our drive to consume -- our desire for food, clothing, smart phones, and megahomes -- evolved from our ancestors' drive to survive. But the psychological and neural processes that originally evolved to guide mammals toward resources that are necessary but scarce may mislead us in modern conditions of material abundance. Such phenomena as obesity, financial bubbles, hoarding, and shopping sprees suggest a mismatch between our instinct to consume and our current environment. This volume brings together research from psychology, neuroscience, economics, marketing, animal behavior, and evolution to explore the causes and consequences of consumption. Contributors consider such topics as how animal food-storing informs human consumption; the downside of evolved "fast and frugal" rules for eating; how future discounting and the draw toward immediate rewards influence food consumption, addiction, and our ability to save; overconsumption as social display; and the policy implications of consumption science.Taken together, the chapters make the case for an emerging interdisciplinary science of consumption that reflects commonalities across species, domains, and fields of inquiry. By carefully comparing mechanisms that underlie seemingly disparate outcomes, we can achieve a unified understanding of consumption that could benefit both science and society.

Democratizing Innovation

Author: Eric von Hippel
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262002744
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The process of user-centered innovation: how it can benefit both users and manufacturers and how its emergence will bring changes in business models and public policy.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Neuroscience

Author: John Bickle
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199719500
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Neuroscience is a state-of-the-art collection of interdisciplinary research spanning philosophy (of science, mind, and ethics) and current neuroscience. Containing chapters written by some of the most prominent philosophers working in this area, and in some cases co-authored with neuroscientists, this volume reflects both the breadth and depth of current work in this exciting field. Topics include the nature of explanation in neuroscience; whether and how current neuroscience is reductionistic; consequences of current research on the neurobiology of learning and memory, perception and sensation, neurocomputational modeling, and neuroanatomy; the burgeoning field of neuroethics and the neurobiology of motivation that increasingly informs it; implications from neurology and clinical neuropsychology, especially in light of some bizarre symptoms involving misrepresentations of self; the extent and consequences of multiple realization in actual neuroscience; the new field of neuroeudamonia; and the neurophilosophy of subjectivity. This volume will interest philosophers working in numerous fields who wish to see how current neuroscience is being brought to bear directly on philosophical issues. It will also be of interest to neuroscientists who wish to learn how the research programs of some of their colleagues are being enriched by interaction with philosophers, and finally to those working in any interdisciplinary field who wish to see how two seemingly disparate disciplines--one traditional and humanistic, the other new and scientific--are being brought together to both disciplines' mutual benefit.

Competition in Telecommunications

Author: Jean-Jacques Laffont
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262621502
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The authors analyze regulatory reform and the emergence of competitionin network industries using the state-of-the-art theoretical tools ofindustrial organization, political economy, and the economics ofincentives.

Dynamic Coordination in the Brain

Author: Christoph von der Malsburg
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262014718
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"Nervous systems do not live by the rate code alone. The ceaseless activities of groups of neurons are choregraphed into waves, oscillations, synchronized rhythms, and transient coalitions; it is these that underlie behavior, memory, and conscious perception. This exuberant manifesto masterfully summarizes and reflects upon the relevant evidence of these patterns from all manner of brains, small and large." --

Implementing Polytope Projects for Smart Systems

Author: Octavian Iordache
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319525514
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book presents a domain of extreme industrial and scientific interest: the study of smart systems and structures. It presents polytope projects as comprehensive physical and cognitive architectures that support the investigation, fabrication and implementation of smart systems and structures. These systems feature multifunctional components that can perform sensing, control, and actuation. In light of the fact that devices, tools, methodologies and organizations based on electronics and information technology for automation, specific to the third industrial revolution, are increasingly reaching their limits, it is essential that smart systems be implemented in industry. Polytope projects facilitate the utilization of smart systems and structures as key elements of the fourth industrial revolution. The book begins by presenting polytope projects as a reference architecture for cyber-physical systems and smart systems, before addressing industrial process synthesis in Chapter 2. Flow-sheet trees, cyclic separations and smart configurations for multi-component separations are discussed here. In turn, Chapter 3 highlights periodic features for drug delivery systems and networks of chemical reactions, while Chapter 4 applies conditioned random walks to polymers and smart materials structures. Chapter 5 examines self-assembly and self-reconfiguration at different scales from molecular to micro systems. Smart devices and technologies are the focus of chapter 6. Modular micro reactor systems and timed automata are examined in selected case studies. Chapter 7 focuses on inferential engineering designs, concept-knowledge, relational concept analysis and model driven architecture, while Chapter 8 puts the spotlight on smart manufacturing, industry 4.0, reference architectures and models for new product development and testing. Lastly, Chapter 9 highlights the polytope projects methodology and the prospects for smart systems and structures. Focusing on process engineering and mathematical modeling for the fourth industrial revolution, the book offers a unique resource for engineers, scientists and entrepreneurs working in chemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical, materials science or systems chemistry, students in various domains of production and engineering, and applied mathematicians.

Nature s Magic

Author: Peter Corning
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139442183
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Nature's Magic, first published in 2003, presents a bold vision of the evolutionary process from the Big Bang to the 21st century. Synergy of various kinds is not only a ubiquitous aspect of the natural world but it has also been a wellspring of creativity and the 'driver' of the broad evolutionary trend toward increased complexity, in nature and human societies alike. But in contrast with the many theories of emergence or complexity that rely on some underlying force or 'law', the 'Synergism Hypothesis', as Peter Corning calls it, is in essence an economic theory of biological complexity; it is fully consistent with mainstream evolutionary biology. Corning refers to it as Holistic Darwinism. Among the many important insights that are provided by this new paradigm, Corning presents a scenario in which the human species invented itself; synergistic, behavioral and technological innovations were the 'pacemakers' of our biological evolution. Synergy has also been the key to the evolution of complex modern societies, he concludes.