The Complex Faulting Process of Earthquakes

Author: J. Koyama
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401732612
Format: PDF
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In seismology an earthquake source is described in terms of a fault with a particular rupture size. The faulting process of large earthquakes has been investigated in the last two decades through analyses of long-period seismo grams produced by advanced digital seismometry. By long-period far-field approximation, the earthquake source has been represented by physical parameters such as s~ismic moment, fault dimension and earthquake mag nitude. Meanwhile, destruction often results from strong ground motion due to large earthquakes at short distances. Since periods of strong ground motion are far shorter than those of seismic waves at teleseismic distances, the theory of long-period source process of earthquakes cannot be applied directly to strong ground motion at short distances. The excitation and propagation of high-frequency seismic waves are of special interest in recent earthquake seismology. In particular, the descrip tion and simulation of strong ground motion are very important not only for problems directly relevant to earthquake engineering, but also to the frac ture mechanics of earthquake faulting. Understanding of earthquake sources has been developed by investigating the complexity of faulting processes for the case of large earthquakes. Laboratory results on rock failures have also advanced the understanding of faulting mechanisms. Various attempts have been made to simulate, theoretically and empirically, the propagation of short-period seismic waves in the heterogeneous real earth.

Treatise on Geophysics

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444538038
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Treatise on Geophysics, Second Edition, is a comprehensive and in-depth study of the physics of the Earth beyond what any geophysics text has provided previously. Thoroughly revised and updated, it provides fundamental and state-of-the-art discussion of all aspects of geophysics. A highlight of the second edition is a new volume on Near Surface Geophysics that discusses the role of geophysics in the exploitation and conservation of natural resources and the assessment of degradation of natural systems by pollution. Additional features include new material in the Planets and Moon, Mantle Dynamics, Core Dynamics, Crustal and Lithosphere Dynamics, Evolution of the Earth, and Geodesy volumes. New material is also presented on the uses of Earth gravity measurements. This title is essential for professionals, researchers, professors, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of Geophysics and Earth system science. Comprehensive and detailed coverage of all aspects of geophysics Fundamental and state-of-the-art discussions of all research topics Integration of topics into a coherent whole

Introduction to Seismology

Author: Peter M. Shearer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139478753
Format: PDF
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This book provides an approachable and concise introduction to seismic theory, designed as a first course for undergraduate students. It clearly explains the fundamental concepts, emphasizing intuitive understanding over lengthy derivations. Incorporating over 30% new material, this second edition includes all the topics needed for a one-semester course in seismology. Additional material has been added throughout including numerical methods, 3-D ray tracing, earthquake location, attenuation, normal modes, and receiver functions. The chapter on earthquakes and source theory has been extensively revised and enlarged, and now includes details on non-double-couple sources, earthquake scaling, radiated energy, and finite slip inversions. Each chapter includes worked problems and detailed exercises that give students the opportunity to apply the techniques they have learned to compute results of interest and to illustrate the Earth's seismic properties. Computer subroutines and datasets for use in the exercises are available at www.cambridge.org/shearer.

Global Dynamics of the Earth

Author: Roberto Sabadini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401717095
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume opens up new perspectives on the physics of the Earth's interior for graduate students and researchers working in the fields of geophysics and geodesy. It looks at our planet in an integrated fashion, linking the physics of its interior to the geophysical and geodetic techniques that record, over a broad spectrum of spatial wavelengths, the ongoing modifications in the shape and gravity field of the planet. Basic issues related to the rheological properties of the Earth's mantle and to its slow deformation will be understood, in both mathematical and physical terms, within the framework of an analytical normal mode relaxation theory. Fundamentals of this theory are developed in the first, tutorial part. The second part deals with a wide range of applications, ranging from changes in the Earth's rotation to post-seismic deformation and sea-level variations induced by post-glacial rebound. In the study of the physics of the Earth's interior, the book bridges the gap between seismology and geodynamics.

Geocomplexity and the Physics of Earthquakes

Author: John Rundle
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
ISBN: 0875909787
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 120. Earthquakes in urban centers are capable of causing enormous damage. The January 16, 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake was only a magnitude 6.9 event and yet produced an estimated $200 billion loss. Despite an active earthquake prediction program in Japan, this event was a complete surprise. Similar scenarios are possible in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and other urban centers around the Pacific plate boundary. The development of forecast or prediction methodologies for these great damaging earthquakes has been complicated by the fact that the largest events repeat at irregular intervals of hundreds to thousands of years, resulting in a limited historical record that has frustrated phenomenological studies. The papers in this book describe an emerging alternative approach, which is based on a new understanding of earthquake physics arising from the construction and analysis of numerical simulations. With these numerical simulations, earthquake physics now can be investigated in numerical laboratories. Simulation data from numerical experiments can be used to develop theoretical understanding that can be subsequently applied to observed data. These methods have been enabled by the information technology revolution, in which fundamental advances in computing and communications are placing vast computational resources at our disposal.