The Complex Faulting Process of Earthquakes

Author: J. Koyama
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401732612
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In seismology an earthquake source is described in terms of a fault with a particular rupture size. The faulting process of large earthquakes has been investigated in the last two decades through analyses of long-period seismo grams produced by advanced digital seismometry. By long-period far-field approximation, the earthquake source has been represented by physical parameters such as s~ismic moment, fault dimension and earthquake mag nitude. Meanwhile, destruction often results from strong ground motion due to large earthquakes at short distances. Since periods of strong ground motion are far shorter than those of seismic waves at teleseismic distances, the theory of long-period source process of earthquakes cannot be applied directly to strong ground motion at short distances. The excitation and propagation of high-frequency seismic waves are of special interest in recent earthquake seismology. In particular, the descrip tion and simulation of strong ground motion are very important not only for problems directly relevant to earthquake engineering, but also to the frac ture mechanics of earthquake faulting. Understanding of earthquake sources has been developed by investigating the complexity of faulting processes for the case of large earthquakes. Laboratory results on rock failures have also advanced the understanding of faulting mechanisms. Various attempts have been made to simulate, theoretically and empirically, the propagation of short-period seismic waves in the heterogeneous real earth.

International Handbook of Earthquake Engineering Seismology

Author: William H.K. Lee
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080489223
Format: PDF
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Modern scientific investigations of earthquakes began in the 1880s, and the International Association of Seismology was organized in 1901 to promote collaboration of scientists and engineers in studying earthquakes. The International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, under the auspices of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI), was prepared by leading experts under a distinguished international advisory board and team of editors. The content is organized into 56 chapters and includes over 430 figures, 24 of which are in color. This large-format, comprehensive reference summarizes well-established facts, reviews relevant theories, surveys useful methods and techniques, and documents and archives basic seismic data. It will be the authoritative reference for scientists and engineers and a quick and handy reference for seismologists. Also available is The International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, Part B. Two CD-ROMs containing additional material packaged with the text

An Introduction to Seismology Earthquakes and Earth Structure

Author: Seth Stein
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118687450
Format: PDF, Kindle
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An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes and Earth Structures is an introduction to seismology and its role in the earth sciences, and is written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The fundamentals of seismic wave propagation are developed using a physical approach and then applied to show how refraction, reflection, and teleseismic techniques are used to study the structure and thus the composition and evolution of the earth. The book shows how seismic waves are used to study earthquakes and are integrated with other data to investigate the plate tectonic processes that cause earthquakes. Figures, examples, problems, and computer exercises teach students about seismology in a creative and intuitive manner. Necessary mathematical tools including vector and tensor analysis, matrix algebra, Fourier analysis, statistics of errors, signal processing, and data inversion are introduced with many relevant examples. The text also addresses the fundamentals of seismometry and applications of seismology to societal issues. Special attention is paid to help students visualize connections between different topics and view seismology as an integrated science. An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and Earth Structure gives an excellent overview for students of geophysics and tectonics, and provides a strong foundation for further studies in seismology. Multidisciplinary examples throughout the text - catering to students in varied disciplines (geology, mineralogy, petrology, physics, etc.). Most up to date book on the market - includes recent seismic events such as the 1999 Earthquakes in Turkey, Greece, and Taiwan). Chapter outlines - each chapter begins with an outline and a list of learning objectives to help students focus and study. Essential math review - an entire section reviews the essential math needed to understand seismology. This can be covered in class or left to students to review as needed. End of chapter problem sets - homework problems that cover the material presented in the chapter. Solutions to all odd numbered problem sets are listed in the back so that students can track their progress. Extensive References - classic references and more current references are listed at the end of each chapter. A set of instructor's resources containing downloadable versions of all the figures in the book, errata and answers to homework problems is available at: http://levee.wustl.edu/seismology/book/. Also available on this website are PowerPoint lecture slides corresponding to the first 5 chapters of the book.

Fault Zone Properties and Earthquake Rupture Dynamics

Author: Eiichi Fukuyama
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080922461
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The dynamics of the earthquake rupture process are closely related to fault zone properties which the authors have intensively investigated by various observations in the field as well as by laboratory experiments. These include geological investigation of the active and fossil faults, physical and chemical features obtained by the laboratory experiments, as well as the seismological estimation from seismic waveforms. Earthquake dynamic rupture can now be modeled using numerical simulations on the basis of field and laboratory observations, which should be very useful for understanding earthquake rupture dynamics. Features: * First overview of new and improved techniques in the study of earthquake faulting * Broad coverage * Full color Benefits: * A must-have for all geophysicists who work on earthquake dynamics * Single resource for all aspects of earthquake dynamics (from lab measurements to seismological observations to numerical modelling) * Bridges the disciplines of seismology, structural geology and rock mechanics * Helps readers to understand and interpret graphs and maps Also has potential use as a supplementary resource for upper division and graduate geophysics courses.

Disaster Deferred

Author: Seth Stein
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 023152241X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Known as the New Madrid seismic zone, the Midwestern rift between two geologic plates on the continental US has led many people to believe in strong likelihood of an imminent and hugely destructive earthquake in the Midwest. After the San Francisco earthquake of 1905 the biggest and most damaging earthquake in US history was the one in New Madrid, Missouri in 1811-1812. This New Madrid story has been written about and debated for years in advanced scientific communications and in the popular media. Yet, there has never been an accurate and approachable telling of the real science and the hazard preparation policy that is warranted in light of the science. With the 200th anniversary of the New Madrid earthquake coming up in 2011 and numerous predictions of doom in the media there will be a lot of interest in this topic. After Hurricane Katrina the whole topic of disaster preparation has become a major issue in scientific media and the public eye. Seth Stein is THE author to tell this story. He is a major figure in US Geosicence and a leading seismologist. He was actively involved in doing the research on the New Madrid Rift Zone. He writes beautifully and has a knack for telling stories about how science is done - the give and take of different hypotheses and the scientific leg work to test these ideas all get a clear and engaging exposition in what the author calls a "Discover Magazine" style. How the science gets played out in a policy arena and how the media can distort sound science to create a good story are also important features of the book. Along the way this book presents a solid dose of real science - the basics of earthquake science and seismology are given a very lively treatment here all within the context of a fascinating tale that features science, history, psychology and public policy.