The Complexion of Race

Author: Roxann Wheeler
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 9780812200140
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In the 1723 Journal of a Voyage up the Gambia, an English narrator describes the native translators vital to the expedition's success as being "Black as Coal." Such a description of dark skin color was not unusual for eighteenth-century Britons—but neither was the statement that followed: "here, thro' Custom, (being Christians) they account themselves White Men." The Complexion of Race asks how such categories would have been possible, when and how such statements came to seem illogical, and how our understanding of the eighteenth century has been distorted by the imposition of nineteenth and twentieth century notions of race on an earlier period. Wheeler traces the emergence of skin color as a predominant marker of identity in British thought and juxtaposes the Enlightenment's scientific speculation on the biology of race with accounts in travel literature, fiction, and other documents that remain grounded in different models of human variety. As a consequence of a burgeoning empire in the second half of the eighteenth century, English writers were increasingly preoccupied with differentiating the British nation from its imperial outposts by naming traits that set off the rulers from the ruled; although race was one of these traits, it was by no means the distinguishing one. In the fiction of the time, non-European characters could still be "redeemed" by baptism or conversion and the British nation could embrace its mixed-race progeny. In Wheeler's eighteenth century we see the coexistence of two systems of racialization and to detect a moment when an older order, based on the division between Christian and heathen, gives way to a new one based on the assertion of difference between black and white.

Kompanien K nige und caboceers

Author: Christina Brauner
Publisher: Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar
ISBN: 3412225142
Format: PDF, ePub
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Die Küste Westafrikas war eine der wichtigsten Kontaktzonen der Frühen Neuzeit. Zahlreiche europäische Handelskompanien konkurrierten hier um Gold und Sklaven, Handelsrechte und Stützpunkte. Die Autorin fragt, wie diese Kompanien untereinander und gegenüber westafrikanischen Herrschern als Akteure der Außenbeziehungen auftraten, und wertet dazu die Archive der niederländischen, englischen und französischen Afrika- und Westindien-Kompanien aus. Wie interkulturelle Diplomatie funktionierte, wird anhand von Zeremoniell, Geschenkverkehr und Völkerrecht analysiert. Die Studie kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass sich eine lokale diplomatische Praxis entwickelte, die Elemente europäischen und afrikanischen Ursprungs verknüpfte.

The Routledge Research Companion to Nineteenth Century British Literature and Science

Author: John Holmes
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317042344
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Tracing the continuities and trends in the complex relationship between literature and science in the long nineteenth century, this companion provides scholars with a comprehensive, authoritative and up-to-date foundation for research in this field. In intellectual, material and social terms, the transformation undergone by Western culture over the period was unprecedented. Many of these changes were grounded in the growth of science. Yet science was not a cultural monolith then any more than it is now, and its development was shaped by competing world views. To cover the full range of literary engagements with science in the nineteenth century, this companion consists of twenty-seven chapters by experts in the field, which explore crucial social and intellectual contexts for the interactions between literature and science, how science affected different genres of writing, and the importance of individual scientific disciplines and concepts within literary culture. Each chapter has its own extensive bibliography. The volume as a whole is rounded out with a synoptic introduction by the editors and an afterword by the eminent historian of nineteenth-century science Bernard Lightman.

Savage Economics

Author: David L. Blaney
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135265046
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This innovative book challenges the most powerful and pervasive ideas concerning political economy, international relations, and ethics in the modern world. Rereading classical authors including Adam Smith, James Steuart, Adam Ferguson, Hegel, and Marx, it provides a systematic and fundamental cultural critique of political economy and critically describes the nature of the mainstream understanding of economics.

Bodies Sex and Desire from the Renaissance to the Present

Author: Kate Fisher
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230354122
Format: PDF, Kindle
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An examination of how bodies and sexualities have been constructed, categorised, represented, diagnosed, experienced and subverted from the fifteenth to the early twenty-first century. It draws attention to continuities in thinking about bodies and sex: concept may have changed, but hey nevertheless draw on older ideas and language.

Slavery and the Culture of Taste

Author: Simon Gikandi
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400840112
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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It would be easy to assume that, in the eighteenth century, slavery and the culture of taste--the world of politeness, manners, and aesthetics--existed as separate and unequal domains, unrelated in the spheres of social life. But to the contrary, Slavery and the Culture of Taste demonstrates that these two areas of modernity were surprisingly entwined. Ranging across Britain, the antebellum South, and the West Indies, and examining vast archives, including portraits, period paintings, personal narratives, and diaries, Simon Gikandi illustrates how the violence and ugliness of enslavement actually shaped theories of taste, notions of beauty, and practices of high culture, and how slavery's impurity informed and haunted the rarified customs of the time. Gikandi focuses on the ways that the enslavement of Africans and the profits derived from this exploitation enabled the moment of taste in European--mainly British--life, leading to a transformation of bourgeois ideas regarding freedom and selfhood. He explores how these connections played out in the immense fortunes made in the West Indies sugar colonies, supporting the lavish lives of English barons and altering the ideals that defined middle-class subjects. Discussing how the ownership of slaves turned the American planter class into a new aristocracy, Gikandi engages with the slaves' own response to the strange interplay of modern notions of freedom and the realities of bondage, and he emphasizes the aesthetic and cultural processes developed by slaves to create spaces of freedom outside the regimen of enforced labor and truncated leisure. Through a close look at the eighteenth century's many remarkable documents and artworks, Slavery and the Culture of Taste sets forth the tensions and contradictions entangling a brutal practice and the distinctions of civility.

Oman Culture and Diplomacy

Author: Jeremy Jones
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748674632
Format: PDF
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This book is a cultural history, offering an historical account of the formation of a distinctive Omani culture; arguing that it is in this unique culture that a specific conception and practice of diplomacy has been developed.