The Complexion of Race

Author: Roxann Wheeler
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 9780812200140
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In the 1723 Journal of a Voyage up the Gambia, an English narrator describes the native translators vital to the expedition's success as being "Black as Coal." Such a description of dark skin color was not unusual for eighteenth-century Britons—but neither was the statement that followed: "here, thro' Custom, (being Christians) they account themselves White Men." The Complexion of Race asks how such categories would have been possible, when and how such statements came to seem illogical, and how our understanding of the eighteenth century has been distorted by the imposition of nineteenth and twentieth century notions of race on an earlier period. Wheeler traces the emergence of skin color as a predominant marker of identity in British thought and juxtaposes the Enlightenment's scientific speculation on the biology of race with accounts in travel literature, fiction, and other documents that remain grounded in different models of human variety. As a consequence of a burgeoning empire in the second half of the eighteenth century, English writers were increasingly preoccupied with differentiating the British nation from its imperial outposts by naming traits that set off the rulers from the ruled; although race was one of these traits, it was by no means the distinguishing one. In the fiction of the time, non-European characters could still be "redeemed" by baptism or conversion and the British nation could embrace its mixed-race progeny. In Wheeler's eighteenth century we see the coexistence of two systems of racialization and to detect a moment when an older order, based on the division between Christian and heathen, gives way to a new one based on the assertion of difference between black and white.

The Routledge Research Companion to Nineteenth Century British Literature and Science

Author: John Holmes
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317042344
Format: PDF, Docs
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Tracing the continuities and trends in the complex relationship between literature and science in the long nineteenth century, this companion provides scholars with a comprehensive, authoritative and up-to-date foundation for research in this field. In intellectual, material and social terms, the transformation undergone by Western culture over the period was unprecedented. Many of these changes were grounded in the growth of science. Yet science was not a cultural monolith then any more than it is now, and its development was shaped by competing world views. To cover the full range of literary engagements with science in the nineteenth century, this companion consists of twenty-seven chapters by experts in the field, which explore crucial social and intellectual contexts for the interactions between literature and science, how science affected different genres of writing, and the importance of individual scientific disciplines and concepts within literary culture. Each chapter has its own extensive bibliography. The volume as a whole is rounded out with a synoptic introduction by the editors and an afterword by the eminent historian of nineteenth-century science Bernard Lightman.

Female Patients in Early Modern Britain

Author: Wendy D. Churchill
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317135970
Format: PDF
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This investigation contributes to the existing scholarship on women and medicine in early modern Britain by examining the diagnosis and treatment of female patients by male professional medical practitioners from 1590 to 1740. In order to obtain a clearer understanding of female illness and medicine during this period, this study examines ailments that were specific and unique to female patients as well as illnesses and conditions that afflicted both female and male patients. Through a qualitative and quantitative analysis of practitioners' records and patients' writings - such as casebooks, diaries and letters - an emphasis is placed on medical practice. Despite the prevalence of females amongst many physicians' casebooks and the existence of sex-based differences in the consultations, diagnoses and treatments of patients, there is no evidence to indicate that either the health or the medical care of females was distinctly disadvantaged by the actions of male practitioners. Instead, the diagnoses and treatments of women were premised on a much deeper and more nuanced understanding of the female body than has previously been implied within the historiography. In turn, their awareness and appreciation of the unique features of female anatomy and physiology meant that male practitioners were sympathetic and accommodating to the needs of individual female patients during this pivotal period in British medicine.

Cultural Studies Review

Author: Chris Healy and Stephen Muecke (eds)
Publisher: Melbourne Univ. Publishing
ISBN: 052285527X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The October 2008 Cultural Studies Review is a special issue focusing on cultures of panic, particularly recent examples of moral panic arising from issues of race, gender and sexuality. The diverse essays deal with 'men of Middle Eastern appearance', the trial of Private Kovko, the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the use of Ritalin, concerns around children and sexuality in Australia, and arts funding in the United States during the 'culture wars'. The moral panic has centrally to do with the behaviour of crowds, particularly the virtual crowds created by the mass media. It's a mechanism of expulsion, and thus at the same time of group solidarity. It's also a particularly powerful genre of the tabloid media: in its identification and shaming of deviant social groups it rigidly defines and reinforces moral norms, and is complicit with political strategies of consolidation and othering which create and depend on a sense of horror at refugees who wilfully throw their children overboard or push in to the front of the 'queue', at paedophiles grooming children over the internet, at drug-crazed criminals and bingeing teenagers... The challenge is to move beyond the realisation that moral panics are not rationally constructed to an analysis of the passional bases of the social order, and to an understanding of how our politics might deal with this without itself falling into the contagion of panic. The diverse collection of essays gathered together in this edition takes up that challenge.

Invoking Slavery in the Eighteenth Century British Imagination

Author: Srividhya Swaminathan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317112997
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In the eighteenth century, audiences in Great Britain understood the term ’slavery’ to refer to a range of physical and metaphysical conditions beyond the transatlantic slave trade. Literary representations of slavery encompassed tales of Barbary captivity, the ’exotic’ slaving practices of the Ottoman Empire, the political enslavement practiced by government or church, and even the harsh life of servants under a cruel master. Arguing that literary and cultural studies have focused too narrowly on slavery as a term that refers almost exclusively to the race-based chattel enslavement of sub-Saharan Africans transported to the New World, the contributors suggest that these analyses foreclose deeper discussion of other associations of the term. They suggest that the term slavery became a powerful rhetorical device for helping British audiences gain a new perspective on their own position with respect to their government and the global sphere. Far from eliding the real and important differences between slave systems operating in the Atlantic world, this collection is a starting point for understanding how slavery as a concept came to encompass many forms of unfree labor and metaphorical bondage precisely because of the power of association.

Staging Governance

Author: Daniel O'Quinn
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801879616
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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At the same time, official speeches and proceedings on colonial practices, such as the public trials of Clive and Hastings, became theatrical events themselves."--Jacket.

This Mortal Coil

Author: Fay Bound Alberti
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199793395
Format: PDF, ePub
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The body has a history. Although Hamlet's "mortal coil" is said to speak universal and unchanging truths about our physical and emotional experiences, conceptions of the body in Shakespeare's time were very different from our own today. The way the body is understood to move, feel, breathe andengage with the world differs across time, culture, and religious tradition, whether Jewish, Hindu, Christian, or Islamic. For centuries "we" were composed of souls that were part of the body and inseparable from the heart, the blood and the viscera. Now "we" exist in our heads, and the brain is thevessel for something indefinable and elusive - the "true self."In this path-breaking book, which will be scholarly yet provocative and accessible, Fay Bound Alberti explores these changes. The themes that This Mortal Coil explores, concerning the nature of the self, the relationship between the brain and the heart, the gendering of our physical and emotionalselves and the need to accommodate mind and body, emotions and experience within a comprehensive framework we can live with, are concerns as old as time. Focusing both on the center of the body and the surface, she provides a rich and intriguing history of the meanings of each layer (in medicine,art, and religion) as well as the ways historians have interpreted those layers: from the bones to the skin, from the senses to the sexual organs, each part has been seen in radically different ways through the ages. Together these account for the making of the modern body and a new understanding ofhow we view our selves.

The Colonizing Trick

Author: David Kazanjian
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 9780816642373
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An illuminating look at the concepts of race, nation, and equality in eighteenth-and nineteenth-century America, The idea that "all men are created equal" is as close to a universal tenet as exists in American history. In this hard-hitting book, David Kazanjian interrogates this tenet, exploring transformative flash points in early America when the belief in equality came into contact with seemingly contrary ideas about race and nation. The Colonizing Trick depicts early America as a white settler colony in the process of becoming an empire--one deeply integrated with Euro-American political economy, imperial ventures in North America and Africa, and pan-American racial formations. Kazanjian traces tensions between universal equality and racial or national particularity through theoretically informed critical readings of a wide range of texts: the political writings of David Walker and Maria Stewart, the narratives of black mariners, economic treatises, the personal letters of Thomas Jefferson and Phillis Wheatley, Charles Brockden Brown's fiction, congressional tariff debats, international treaties, and popular novelettes about the U.S.-Mexico War and the Yucatan's Caste War. Kazanjian shows how emergent racial and national formations do not contradict universalist egalitarianism; rather, they rearticulate it, making equality at once restricted, formal, abstract, and materially embodied.

Bringing Travel Home to England

Author: Susan Lamb
Publisher: Associated University Presse
ISBN: 9780874139211
Format: PDF, Docs
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This study is the first to identify and examine the circulations and mutually constitutive relations among literature, tourism, and the wider culture in the 18th century. Gendering emerges as a key mechanism both for those who brought travel home and for those who were influenced by it in other ways.

Shakespeare s World world Shakespeares

Author: International Shakespeare Association. World Congress
Publisher: Associated University Presse
ISBN: 9780874139891
Format: PDF
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This collection offers 29 essays by many of the world's major scholars of the extraordinary diversity and richness of Shakespeare studies today. It ranges from examinations of the society Shakespeare himself lived in, to recent films, plays, novels and operatic adaptations in Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia and the Middle East.