The Deacons for Defense

Author: Lance Hill
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 9780807857021
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In 1964 a small group of African American men in Jonesboro, Louisiana, defied the nonviolence policy of the mainstream civil rights movement and formed an armed self-defense organization--the Deacons for Defense and Justice--to protect movement workers fr

The Deacons for Defense

Author: Lance Hill
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 9780807863602
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
In 1964 a small group of African American men in Jonesboro, Louisiana, defied the nonviolence policy of the mainstream civil rights movement and formed an armed self-defense organization--the Deacons for Defense and Justice--to protect movement workers from vigilante and police violence. With their largest and most famous chapter at the center of a bloody campaign in the Ku Klux Klan stronghold of Bogalusa, Louisiana, the Deacons became a popular symbol of the growing frustration with Martin Luther King Jr.'s nonviolent strategy and a rallying point for a militant working-class movement in the South. Lance Hill offers the first detailed history of the Deacons for Defense and Justice, who grew to several hundred members and twenty-one chapters in the Deep South and led some of the most successful local campaigns in the civil rights movement. In his analysis of this important yet long-overlooked organization, Hill challenges what he calls "the myth of nonviolence--the idea that a united civil rights movement achieved its goals through nonviolent direct action led by middle-class and religious leaders. In contrast, Hill constructs a compelling historical narrative of a working-class armed self-defense movement that defied the entrenched nonviolent leadership and played a crucial role in compelling the federal government to neutralize the Klan and uphold civil rights and liberties.

The Deacons for Defense

Author: Lance Edward Hill
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 0807828475
Format: PDF, Docs
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The author offers the first detailed history of the Deacons for Defense and Justice, which grew to several hundred members and 21 chapters in the Deep South and led some of the most successful local campaigns in the civil rights movement.

We Will Shoot Back

Author: Akinyele Omowale Umoja
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814724248
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Winner of the 2014 Anna Julia Cooper-CLR James Book Award presented by the National Council of Black Studies Winner of the 2014 PEN Oakland-Josephine Miles Award for Excellence in Literature In We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement, Akinyele Omowale Umoja argues that armed resistance was critical to the Southern freedom struggle and the dismantling of segregation and Black disenfranchisement. Intimidation and fear were central to the system of oppression in most of the Deep South. To overcome the system of segregation, Black people had to overcome fear to present a significant challenge to White domination. As the civil rights movement developed, armed self-defense and resistance became a significant means by which the descendants of enslaved Africans overturned fear and intimidation and developed different political and social relationships between Black and White Mississippians. This riveting historical narrative reconstructs the armed resistance of Black activists, their challenge of racist terrorism, and their fight for human rights. Instructor's Guide

This Nonviolent Stuff ll Get You Killed

Author: Charles E. Cobb
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780822361237
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Visiting Martin Luther King Jr. during the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott, journalist William Worthy almost sat on a loaded pistol. "Just for self-defense," King assured him. It was not the only weapon King kept for such a purpose; one of his advisors remembered the reverend's Montgomery, Alabama, home as "an arsenal." Like King, many ostensibly "nonviolent" civil rights activists embraced their constitutional right to self-protection--yet this crucial dimension of the Afro-American freedom struggle has been long ignored by history. In This Nonviolent Stuff'll Get You Killed, Charles E. Cobb Jr. recovers this history, describing the vital role that armed self-defense has played in the survival and liberation of black communities. Drawing on his experiences in the civil rights movement and giving voice to its participants, Cobb lays bare the paradoxical relationship between the nonviolent civil rights struggle and the long history and importance of African Americans taking up arms to defend themselves against white supremacist violence.

Negroes with Guns

Author: Robert Franklin Williams
Publisher: Wayne State University Press
ISBN: 9780814327142
Format: PDF, Docs
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First published in 1962, Negroes with Guns is the story of a southern black community's struggle to arm itself in self-defense against the Ku Klux Klan and other racist groups. Frustrated and angered by violence condoned or abetted by the local authorities against blacks, the small community of Monroe, North Carolina, brought the issue of armed self-defense to the forefront of the civil rights movement. The single most important intellectual influence on Huey P. Newton, the founder of the Black Panther Party, Negroes with Guns is a classic story of a man who risked his life for democracy and freedom.

Race Democracy

Author: Adam Fairclough
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
ISBN: 9780820331140
Format: PDF, Mobi
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From the foundation of the New Orleans branch of the NAACP in 1915 to the beginning of Edwin Edwards' first term as governor in 1972, this is a wide-ranging study of the civil rights struggle in Louisiana. This edition contains a new preface which brings the narrative up-to-date, including coverage of Hurricane Katrina.

Pure Fire

Author: Christopher B. Strain
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
ISBN: 9780820326870
Format: PDF, Docs
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In this study of self-defense as it was debated and practiced during the civil rights era, the decision to defend oneself and family is reframed in terms of a daily concern for many African Americans who faced the continual menace of white aggression. Simultaneous.

Our Separate Ways

Author: Christina Greene
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 0807876372
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In an in-depth community study of women in the civil rights movement, Christina Greene examines how several generations of black and white women, low-income as well as more affluent, shaped the struggle for black freedom in Durham, North Carolina. In the city long known as "the capital of the black middle class," Greene finds that, in fact, low-income African American women were the sustaining force for change. Greene demonstrates that women activists frequently were more organized, more militant, and more numerous than their male counterparts. They brought new approaches and strategies to protest, leadership, and racial politics. Arguing that race was not automatically a unifying force, Greene sheds new light on the class and gender fault lines within Durham's black community. While middle-class black leaders cautiously negotiated with whites in the boardroom, low-income black women were coordinating direct action in hair salons and neighborhood meetings. Greene's analysis challenges scholars and activists to rethink the contours of grassroots activism in the struggle for racial and economic justice in postwar America. She provides fresh insight into the changing nature of southern white liberalism and interracial alliances, the desegregation of schools and public accommodations, and the battle to end employment discrimination and urban poverty.

1919 The Year of Racial Violence

Author: David F. Krugler
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107061792
Format: PDF, ePub
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Krugler recounts African Americans' brave stand against a cascade of mob attacks in the United States after World War I.