The Descent of Man

Author: Charles Darwin
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 1101213523
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Applying his controversial theory of evolution to the origins of the human species, Charles Darwin's The Descent of Man was the culmination of his life's work. In The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin refused to discuss human evolution, believing the subject too 'surrounded with prejudices'. He had been reworking his notes since the 1830s, but only with trepidation did he finally publish The Descent of Man in 1871. The book notoriously put apes in our family tree and made the races one family, diversified by 'sexual selection' - Darwin's provocative theory that female choice among competing males leads to diverging racial characteristics. Named by Sigmund Freud as 'one of the ten most significant books' ever written, Darwin's Descent of Man continues to shape the way we think about what it is that makes us uniquely human. In their introduction, James Moore and Adrian Desmond, acclaimed biographers of Charles Darwin, call for a radical re-assessment of the book, arguing that its core ideas on race were fired by Darwin's hatred of slavery. The text is the second and definitive edition and this volume also contains suggestions for further reading, a chronology and biographical sketches of prominent individuals mentioned. For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. With more than 1,700 titles, Penguin Classics represents a global bookshelf of the best works throughout history and across genres and disciplines. Readers trust the series to provide authoritative texts enhanced by introductions and notes by distinguished scholars and contemporary authors, as well as up-to-date translations by award-winning translators. From the Trade Paperback edition.

The Scopes Monkey Trial

Author: Samuel Willard Crompton
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
ISBN: 1438131283
Format: PDF
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After the passage of the Butler Act, which made it unlawful for a state-funded school in Tennessee to teach that humans evolved from lower organisms, 24-year-old high school teacher John Scopes intentionally violated the law. Arrested and charged on May 5, 1925, Scopes became the centerpiece in a trial that pitted two of the finest legal minds of the time against one another. Prosecutor William Jennings Bryan's participation in the trial served as the capstone to his prior unsuccessful advocacy to cut off funds to schools that taught evolution. Prominent trial attorney Clarence Darrow, an agnostic, spoke for the defense. This case, which was the first to be broadcast via radio, was a critical turning point in the creation vs. evolution controversy that continues today. The Scopes Monkey Trial has since been fictionalized in a play, a film, and three television films, all called Inherit the Wind. The Scopes Monkey Trial: Debate over Evolution explains how this pivotal court case shaped the way evolution and creationism are approached in classrooms.

Women Poets in the Victorian Era

Author: Fabienne Moine
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134776535
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Examining the place of nature in Victorian women's poetry, Fabienne Moine explores the work of canonical and long-neglected women poets to show the myriad connections between women and nature during the period. At the same time, she challenges essentialist discourses that assume innate affinities between women and the natural world. Rather, Moine shows, Victorian women poets mobilised these alliances to defend common interests and express their engagement with social issues. While well-known poets such as Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Christina Rossetti are well-represented in Moine's study, she pays particular attention to lesser known writers such as Mary Howitt or Eliza Cook who were popular during their lifetimes or Edith Nesbit, whose verse has received scant critical attention so far. She also brings to the fore the poetry of many non-professional poets. Looking to their immediate cultural environments for inspiration, these women reconstructed the natural world in poems that raise questions about the validity and the scope of representations of nature, ultimately questioning or undermining social practices that mould and often fossilise cultural identities.

Neuroeconomics of Prosocial Behavior

Author: Carolyn Declerck
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128014415
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This summary of recent research in neuroeconomics aims to explain how and why a person can sometimes be generous, helpful, and cooperative, yet other times behave in a self-interested and/or exploitative manner. The book explains a dual process of analysis measuring immediate needs of the individual, relative to long term gains possible through prosocial behavior (e.g. synergy, accumulating profits, (in)direct reciprocity) with the output further mitigated by the motivation of the individual at that moment and any special circumstances of the environment. Ultimately it can be shown that prosocial behavior can be economically rational. Yet even when individuals are intrinsically motivated to act prosocially, they are also able to reverse this behavior when they sense it is no longer adaptive. The book will further explore individual differences in prosocial behavior, the development of prosocial behavior, and how a personal neural signature forms that facilitates or hampers cooperation. The book includes game theory research, neuroimaging studies, and research in traditional cognitive psychology to better understand human decision-making re prosocial behavior. This will be of interest to cognitive, developmental, and social psychologists, as well as neuroscientists, and behavioral economists. Explores: Individual differences in prosocial behavior, The development of prosocial behavior, How a personal neural signature forms that facilitates or hampers cooperation Includes: Game theory research, Neuroimaging studies, Research in traditional cognitive psychology

On Evolution

Author: Charles Darwin
Publisher: Hackett Publishing
ISBN: 9780872202856
Format: PDF, Docs
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In this rich selection from Darwin's most important and relevant works, Glick and Kohn provide the reader with a map of sorts by which to navigate the ins and outs of the development of the theory of natural selection. A concise general introduction lays out Darwin's theory, which is followed up in the chapter introductions. Each chapter ends with an excerpt from Darwin's correspondence, commenting on the work in question, its significance, impact, and reception. In addition, two essential appendices are included - the first three chapters from Malthus, On Population, which gave Darwin the idea for natural selection, and the paper by Wallace that motivated Darwin to abandon the "Big Species Book" and write Origin of Species.

Einer von uns

Author: Daniel Magariel
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406711847
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Ein fesselnder, erschütternder Roman über zwei junge Brüder und ihren zugleich liebevollen und übergriffigen Vater – Daniel Magariels Buch ist das verblüffende Debüt eines neuen, großen Talents. Die drei – ein zwölfjähriger Junge, sein älterer Bruder und ihr Vater – haben den „Krieg“ gewonnen: So nennt der Vater seine bittere Scheidung und den Kampf ums Sorgerecht. Sie verlassen Kansas und fahren nach Albuquerque, um noch einmal neu zu beginnen. Die Jungen gehen zur Schule, spielen Basketball, finden Freunde. Ihr Vater arbeitet von Zuhause aus. Bald aber wachsen sich kleine Fehltritte des Vaters zu einer finsteren Irritation aus, müssen die Jungen erkennen, dass sich ihr Vater verändert, unberechenbar wird, mitunter brutal. Vor der kargerhabenen Kulisse der Landschaft New Mexicos erzählt Magariel mit bestechender Klarheit, wie die Jungen verzweifelt versuchen, die Familie zusammenzuhalten, sich gegenseitig schützen und helfen, und schließlich ums eigene Überleben kämpfen. „Einer von uns“ ist eine kurze Geschichte mit gewaltiger emotionaler Wucht.

Der Mensch der Bonobo und die Zehn Gebote

Author: Frans de Waal
Publisher: Klett-Cotta
ISBN: 360810822X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Woher kommt die Moral? Wie hilft sie uns dabei, richtig zu handeln? De Waal beantwortet Fragen rund um Moral und Humanismus mit Blick auf Primaten und andere Tiere, die uns erstaunlich nahestehen: Im gottlosen Universum beobachtet er, wie Menschenaffen gerecht, kooperativ und empathisch handeln. Der weltbekannte Primatenforscher Frans de Waal nimmt uns mit auf eine erfrischende, philosophische Reise, bei der die lange Tradition des Humanismus ebenso zu Wort kommt wie das Sozialverhalten im Tierreich. Er untersucht, welche Konsequenzen seine Forschungen für unser Verständnis von moderner Religion haben. Ganz gleich, welchen Einfluss die Religion auf den Moralkodex des Menschen genommen hat, sie ist nicht die Urheberin unserer Moralität. Der Autor fordert die Leser auf, sich konstruktiv mit Fragen wie diesen auseinanderzusetzen: Welche Rolle spielt die Religion heutzutage in einer gut funktionierenden Gesellschaft? Wo können Gläubige und Nichtgläubige Inspiration für eine gute Lebensführung finden?