Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

Author: Sérgio Margulis
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821356913
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Annotation This title studies the role of cattle ranching its dynamic and profitability in the expansion of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia. It provides a social evaluation of deforestation in this region and presents and compares a number of different scenarios and proposed recommendations.

Sustainable Settlement in the Brazilian Amazon

Author: Anna Luiza Ozorio de Almeida
Publisher: Taylor & Francis US
ISBN: 9780195211047
Format: PDF, ePub
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This study is based on field surveys conducted in the Brazilian Amazon and covers twenty years of settlement experience. Its findings reveal that much of the Amazonian frontier land deforested by pioneers in the 1970s is becoming agriculturally unproductive. In response to the Brazilian economic crisis of the 1980s, a growing urban middle class began buying such land and holding it as a store of value, causing original settlers to leave and migrate to new frontiers within the Amazon. The authors conclude that for small farmers to be prevented from moving on and clearing new frontiers, they must be rewarded for staying in the old ones. This requires promoting good farming, punishing speculation, and directly penalizing deforestation, through the innovative use of economic policies and new forms of cooperation between environmental and economic agencies at the local, national, and international levels, including the World Bank. Paradoxically, sustainable farming in the Amazon world would not likely attract migrants from outside the region, but unsustainable farming is sure to continue fueling intra-regional migration, even if the general economic crisis were to subside during the 1990s. Consequently, there is increasing urgency to devise policies that protect the forest by providing poor farmers with economic alternatives to encroachment.

Tropical Deforestation

Author: Sharon L. Spray
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780742534827
Format: PDF, Docs
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Tropical Deforestation introduces readers to the important concepts for understanding the environmental challenges and consequences of the deforestation. Contributions from scientists and academics in the social sciences and humanities provide readers with an initial 'tool kit' for understanding the concepts central to their disciplinary perspective and the multi-dimensional aspects of deforestation.

Engineering Earth

Author: Stanley D. Brunn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048199204
Format: PDF
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This is the first book to examine the actual impact of physical and social engineering projects in more than fifty countries from a multidisciplinary perspective. The book brings together an international team of nearly two hundred authors from over two dozen different countries and more than a dozen different social, environmental, and engineering sciences. Together they document and illustrate with case studies, maps and photographs the scale and impacts of many megaprojects and the importance of studying these projects in historical, contemporary and postmodern perspectives. This pioneering book will stimulate interest in examining a variety of both social and physical engineering projects at local, regional, and global scales and from disciplinary and trans-disciplinary perspectives.

Amazonia and Global Change

Author: Michael Keller
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118671511
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 186. Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

Largeholder Deforestation and Land Conflict in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon

Author: Stephen Peter Aldrich
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Over the past thirty years research on land cover and land use change in Amazonia has indicated a number of human-environment interactions which have led to extensive deforestation in the world's largest and most diverse standing tropical forest. Various underlying socioeconomic causes of deforestation are well explicated in the existing primary literature, and include economic development, concerns of national security, and market influence. However, to date very little attention has been paid to the potential for social interactions between land managers to drive deforestation in the region. This dissertation focuses on one particularly contentious type of interaction--land conflict--in one of Brazil's most active and controversial deforestation fronts in the South of the state of Pará. Land conflict in this part of Brazil typically pits largeholder ranchers against the landless poor, with conflicts frequently escalating to the occupation of private property and even violent intimidation and murder. A number of factors contribute to this violence, but among the most important is constitutional law, which allows for the expropriation of private property for agrarian reform purposes if land is not considered "productive." In the Amazon, the most common measure of productivity is the amount of cleared land, leading to a significant incentive for deforestation. When this constitutional law is combined with a socially organized peasantry, largeholders are likely to take extreme measures to protect their property, including significant deforestation. This work draws from concepts in the land change science literature, a rich concept of geographic "place," and contentious politics in order to describe how conflict could be an underlying driver of deforestation. Drawing from this integration of political and ecological considerations, I develop a logistic regression model which shows that the social movement organizations which confront wealthy cattle ranchers do so with much greater likelihood on properties displaying various physical and legal characteristics. Drawing from the insights provided by this logistic regression model, I then specify a spatial error regression model which indicates, among other things, that land conflict increases the amount of deforestation on largeholdings in the region. The data used to develop these models involves an extensive archive of newspaper accounts, key informant interviews with a variety of actors on both sides of the ongoing struggle for land, geographic information systems, and remote sensing. Among the chief policy implications of this research is a potential need to rethink the current measure of the productivity of properties in the Amazon to include criteria such as labor conditions, number of people employed, ecologically responsible use, and actual productivity. A redefinition of productivity in this way could both limit environmental wrongs and begin to repair the rift between largeholders and the landless laborers of the region. (p. III-IV).

Encyclopedia of global warming

Author: Steven I. Dutch
Publisher: Salem Pr Inc
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The subject of climate change has become an important issue over the past few years. Encyclopedia of Global Warming is designed to help the student or patron understand the environmental science, social issues and controversies surrounding this important issue. Essays explore a wide variety of topics, including fossil fuels, glaciology, conservation, human rights, pollution, society, science and water resources.