The Emergence of EU Criminal Law

Author: Sarah Summers
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1782254676
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Criminal law can no longer be neatly categorised as the product and responsibility of domestic law. That this is true is emphasised by the ever-increasing amount of legislation stemming from the European Union (EU) which impacts, both directly and indirectly, on the criminal law. The involvement of the EU institutions in the substantive criminal laws of its Member States is of considerable legal and political significance. This book deals with the emerging EU framework for creating, harmonising and ensuring the application of EU criminal law. This book aims to highlight some of the consequences of EU involvement in the criminal law by examining the provisions which have been adopted in the field of information and communications technology. It provides an overview of the criminal law competence of the EU and evaluates the impact of these developments on the criminal laws of the Member States. It then goes on to consider the EU legislation which requires Member States to regulate matters such as data protection, e-security, intellectual property and various types of illegal content through the criminal law is analysed. In the course of this evaluation, particular consideration is given to issues such as the basis on which the EU institutions establish the need for criminal sanctions, the liability of service providers and the extent to which the Member States have adhered to, or departed from, the legislation in the course of implementation.

Encyclopedia of Cybercrime

Author: Samuel C. McQuade III
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 0313087040
Format: PDF, Kindle
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There are today no more compelling sets of crime and security threats facing nations, communities, organizations, groups, families and individuals than those encompassed by cybercrime. For over fifty years crime enabled by computing and telecommunications technologies have increasingly threatened societies as they have become reliant on information systems for sustaining modernized living. Cybercrime is not a new phenomenon, rather an evolving one with respect to adoption of information technology (IT) for abusive and criminal purposes. Further, by virtue of the myriad ways in which IT is abused, it represents a technological shift in the nature of crime rather than a new form of criminal behavior. In other words, the nature of crime and its impacts on society are changing to the extent computers and other forms of IT are used for illicit purposes. Understanding the subject, then, is imperative to combatting it and to addressing it at various levels. This work is the first comprehensive encyclopedia to address cybercrime. Topical articles address all key areas of concern and specifically those having to with: terminology, definitions and social constructs of crime; national infrastructure security vulnerabilities and capabilities; types of attacks to computers and information systems; computer abusers and cybercriminals; criminological, sociological, psychological and technological theoretical underpinnings of cybercrime; social and economic impacts of crime enabled with information technology (IT) inclusive of harms experienced by victims of cybercrimes and computer abuse; emerging and controversial issues such as online pornography, the computer hacking subculture and potential negative effects of electronic gaming and so-called computer addiction; bodies and specific examples of U.S. federal laws and regulations that help to prevent cybercrimes; examples and perspectives of law enforcement, regulatory and professional member associations concerned about cybercrime and its impacts; and computer forensics as well as general investigation/prosecution of high tech crimes and attendant challenges within the United States and internationally.

Transitional Justice and the Prosecution of Political Leaders in the Arab Region

Author: Noha Aboueldahab
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1509911359
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The dramatic uprisings that ousted the long-standing leaders of several countries in the Arab region set in motion an unprecedented period of social, political and legal transformation. The prosecution of political leaders took centre stage in the pursuit of transitional justice following the 'Arab Spring'. Through a comparative case study of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Yemen, this book argues that transitional justice in the Arab region presents the strongest challenge yet to the transitional justice paradigm. This paradigm is built on the underlying assumption that transitions constitute a shift from non-liberal to liberal democratic regimes, where often legal measures are taken to address atrocities committed during the prior regime. The book is guided by two principal questions: first, what trigger and driving factors led to the decision of whether or not to prosecute former political leaders? And second, what shaping factors affected the content and extent of decisions regarding prosecution? In answering these questions, the book enhances our understanding of how transitional justice is pursued by different actors in varied contexts. In doing so, it challenges the predominant understanding that transitional justice uniformly occurs in liberalising contexts and calls for a re-thinking of transitional justice theory and practice. Using original findings generated from almost 50 interviews across 4 countries, this research builds on the growing critical literature that claims that transitional justice is an under-theorised field and needs to be developed to take into account non-liberal and complex transitions. It will be stimulating and thought-provoking reading for all those interested in transitional justice and the 'Arab Spring'. 'Beginning with the striking image of former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in the docks in 2011, Aboueldahab analyzes the role of transitional justice processes in relation to the political developments of the Arab Spring. She makes a compelling case for a fundamental rethinking of those approaches to fighting impunity that have become mainstreamed in the international human rights community; this book also challenges assumptions and theories regarding the notion of 'liberalizing' political transitions. Drawing from four country contexts (Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and Yemen) this book demonstrates that human rights goals were undermined because the international community and key national actors ignored the socio-legal histories that shaped the paths and horizons of political change. This book is an important contribution to the study of international criminal law, transitional justice, and the broader field of political transition.' Vasuki Nesiah, Associate Professor of Practice, New York University 'This very timely and perceptive study provides rigorous empirical evaluation of the post-transition prosecution strategies in the Arab region. It demonstrates both the complexity of and contrasts between the cases, but also highlights their divergence from the transitional justice field as it is generally understood. By exploring the broader political shifts and the local political dynamics of prosecutions, Noha Aboueldahab challenges common misconceptions about whose interests prosecutions serve in these contexts. In doing so, she questions the assumptions of transitional justice more broadly.' Hugo van der Merwe, Director of Research, The Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation and Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Transitional Justice 'In this book Aboueldahab presents an in depth empirical analysis of the dynamics of transitional justice in the Arab spring. In so doing she highlights not only the practical difficulties faced but provides an insightful commentary on some of the core tensions of transitional justice itself. The book will be an invaluable resource for those seeking to understand the successes and failures of transitional justice and its application to non-liberal transitions.' Dr Catherine Turner, Assistant Professor, Durham Law School

International and Comparative Criminal Justice

Author: Mark J. Findlay
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136184155
Format: PDF, Mobi
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International criminal justice is in transition. This book explores the growing internationalisation of criminal justice as a phenomenon of global governance. It provides students with a critical understanding of the international institutions for regulating transnational crime, the development of alternative justice processes across the globe, and international and supra-national co-operation criminal justice policies and practices. Key topics covered include: The historical development of International Criminal Justice institutions and traditions International Restorative Justice Victim communities and collaborative justice The relationship between crime and war International Human Rights The ‘War on Terror’ The globalisation of crime and control Developments in global governance, communitarian justice and accountability This text will familiarize students with the literature and debates surrounding international criminal justice and enable them to critically appreciate their theoretical and policy context. In doing so, it encourages students to assess the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches to the study of global justice and the analysis of comparative policy convergence and research. It will also help students to reflect on, and communicate in an informed and critical way theoretical accounts and empirical studies within the field of international criminal justice. This book will be essential reading for upper level undergraduates taking courses in criminal law, international relations and governance and postgraduates engaged in international criminal justice, international law, regulation and governance and human rights.

The European Union as an Area of Freedom Security and Justice

Author: Maria Fletcher
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317573226
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book presents a collection of essays on key topics and new perspectives on the EU’s Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ). Europe’s area of freedom, security and justice is of increasing importance in contemporary EU law and legislation. It is worthy of special research attention because of its high-stakes content (particularly from an individual and a state perspective) and because its development to date has tangentially thrown up some of the most important and contentious constitutional questions in EU law. As the AFSJ becomes more and more intertwined with ‘mainstream’ EU law, this edited collection provides a timely analysis of the merger between the two. Showcasing a selection of work from key thinkers in this field, the book is organised around the major AFSJ themes of crime, security, border control, civil law cooperation and important ‘meta’ issues of governance and constitutional law. It also analyses the major constitutional and governance challenges such as variable geometry, institutional dynamics, and interface with rights around data protection/secrecy/spying. In the concluding section of the book the editors consider the extent to which the different facets of the AFSJ can be construed in a coherent and systematic manner within the EU legal system, as well as identifying potential future research agendas. The European Union as an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice will be of great interest to students and scholars of European law and politics.

The Bluebook

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789998255289
Format: PDF
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Provides a guide to legal citation information inthe United States. Compiled from the Columbia LawReview, 105th edition, c2005; Harvard Law Review,118th edition, c2005; Univ. of Pennsylvania LawReview, 153rd edition, c2005; and the Yale LawJournal, 114th edition, c2005. New edition offersthe Bluepages for beginning law students.

Obstacles to Fairness in Criminal Proceedings

Author: John D Jackson
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1782258361
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This volume considers the way in which the focus on individual rights may constitute an obstacle to ensuring fairness in criminal proceedings. The increasingly cosmopolitan nature of criminal justice, forcing legal systems with different institutional forms and practices to interact with each other as they attempt to combat crime beyond national borders, has accentuated the need for systems to seek legitimacy beyond their domestic traditions. Fairness, expressed in terms of the right to a fair trial in provisions such as Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, has emerged across Europe as the principal means of guaranteeing the legitimacy of criminal proceedings. The consequence of this is that criminal procedure doctrines are framed overwhelmingly in 'constitutional' terms – the protection of defence rights is necessary to restrict and legitimate the state's mandate to prosecute crime. Yet there are various problems with relying solely or predominantly on defence rights as a means of ensuring that proceedings are 'fair' or legitimate and these issues are rarely discussed in the academic literature. In this volume, scholars from the disciplines of law, philosophy and sociology challenge various normative assumptions underpinning our understanding of fairness in criminal proceedings.

Principles of German Criminal Law

Author: Michael Bohlander
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847314791
Format: PDF
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German criminal law doctrine, as one of the more influential ones over time and on a global scale, takes rather different approaches to many of the problems of substantive law from those of the common law family of countries like the UK, the US, Canada, New Zealand, Australia etc. It also differs markedly from the system which is most often used in Anglophone writing as a civil law comparison, the French law. German criminal law is a code-based model and has been for centuries. The influence of academic writing on its development has been far greater than in the judge-oriented common law models. The book will serve as a useful aid to debates about codification efforts in countries that are mostly based on a case law system, but who wish to re-structure their law in one or several criminal codes. The comparison will show that similar problems occur in all legal systems regardless of their provenance, and the attempts of individual systems at solving them, their successes and their failures, can provide a rich experience on which other countries can draw and on which they can build. The book provides an outline of the principles of German criminal law, mainly the so-called 'General Part' (eg actus reus, mens rea, defences, participation) and the core offence categories (homicide, offences against property, sexual offences). It sets out the principles, their development under the influence of academic writing and judicial decisions. The book is not meant as a textbook of German criminal law, but is a selection of interrelated in-depth essays on the central problems. Wherever it is apposite and feasible, comparison is offered to the approaches of English criminal law and the legal systems of other common and civil law countries in order to allow common lawyers to draw the pertinent parallels to their own jurisdictions.

Law Policy and the Internet

Author: Lilian Edwards
Publisher: Hart Publishing
ISBN: 9781849467032
Format: PDF, Docs
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This is the third edition of a successful book which offers students and practitioners an up-to-date overview of developments in internet law and practice. The editors have once again assembled a team of expert authors to write about those aspects of internet law which are of special importance in the global regulation of the internet. The book is focused around three principal themes e-commerce, intellectual property (IP), and privacy, data protection, and cyber-crime with, in addition, a major contribution on internet governance. This edition incorporates, for the first time, areas such as data protection, privacy and electronic surveillance, cyber crime and cyber security, jurisdiction, and dispute resolution online. The section on IP contains clearer and more comprehensive analysis of the ways in which IP and the internet intersect, including coverage of open source licenses and the IP problems around search engines. The third edition also takes account of all current cases and l

Piracy and Armed Robbery at Sea

Author: Robin Geiss
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191018473
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Since 2008 increasing pirate activities in Somalia, the Gulf of Aden, and the Indian Ocean have once again drawn the international community's attention to piracy and armed robbery at sea. States are resolved to repress these impediments to the free flow of trade and navigation. To this end a number of multinational counter-piracy missions have been deployed to the region. This book describes the enforcement powers that States may rely upon in their quest to repress piracy in the larger Gulf of Aden region. The piracy rules of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the legal safeguards applicable to maritime interception operations are scrutinized before the analysis turns to the criminal prosecution of pirates and armed robbers at sea. The discussion includes so-called shiprider agreements, the transfers of alleged offenders to regional states, the jurisdictional bases for prosecuting pirates, and the feasibility of an international(ized) venue for their trial. In addressing a range of relevant issues, this book presents a detailed and comprehensive up-to-date analysis of the legal issues pertaining to the repression of piracy and armed robbery at sea and assesses whether the currently existing legal regime is still adequate to effectively counter piracy in the 21st century.