The Environmental Management of Low Grade Fuels

Author: Mary MacDonald
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134051263
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The negative environmental impacts of energy use, particularly soil and water pollution, continue to present serious policy dilemmas. The release of emissions and effluents and the build-up of solid waste throughout the fuel cycle have disruptive effects on natural habitats and human health. Further, fuel combustion can result in the emission of carbon dioxide, ozone, methane and nitrogen dioxide the 'greenhouse gases' which have been linked to climate change. The safe and sustainable use of energy has become an important issue in the wider environmental debate. In this report, researchers from the Stockholm Environment Institute explore the issues raised by the use of low-grade fuels such as peat, wood, biomass, lignite, oil shale and municipal and industrial wastes. The present strategies and policy options for all stages of the process, from mining and transport to processing and combustion. With those who would like to learn more about these fuels in mind, the material is presented clearly, and discussions of environmental protection measures are given in table form throughout the ease of reference. A directory of environmental guidelines, regulations and standards is given in an appendix. While a high calorific value fuels remain the most significant source of energy in many countries, economic and other constraints on the use of these fuels may result in more nations turning to low-grade sources of energy to operate their industrial or transportation sectors. The greater potential for environmental degradation that accompanies the use of low-grade fuels means that it is crucial that environmentally sound methods for their management, such as those presented here, be more widely available. The Environmental Management of Low-Grade Fuels will be valuable for industry specialists, policy makers, students and all who are concerned with the life cycle of these materials. Mary MacDonald is an affiliated scientist, and Michael Chadwick is a former director, at the Stockholm Environment Institute. Garegin Aslanian is a senior associate with the Institute for High Temperature Research in Moscow. Originally published in 1996

The Environmental Management of Low Grade Fuels

Author: Michael Chadwick
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781138989160
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The negative environmental impacts of energy use, particularly soil and water pollution, continue to present serious policy dilemmas. The release of emissions and effluents and the build-up of solid waste throughout the fuel cycle have disruptive effects on natural habitats and human health. Further, fuel combustion can result in the emission of carbon dioxide, ozone, methane and nitrogen dioxide ? the 'greenhouse gases' which have been linked to climate change. The safe and sustainable use of energy has become an important issue in the wider environmental debate. In this report, researchers from the Stockholm Environment Institute explore the issues raised by the use of low-grade fuels such as peat, wood, biomass, lignite, oil shale and municipal and industrial wastes. The present strategies and policy options for all stages of the process, from mining and transport to processing and combustion. With those who would like to learn more about these fuels in mind, the material is presented clearly, and discussions of environmental protection measures are given in table form throughout the ease of reference. A directory of environmental guidelines, regulations and standards is given in an appendix. While a high calorific value fuels remain the most significant source of energy in many countries, economic and other constraints on the use of these fuels may result in more nations turning to low-grade sources of energy to operate their industrial or transportation sectors. The greater potential for environmental degradation that accompanies the use of low-grade fuels means that it is crucial that environmentally sound methods for their management, such as those presented here, be more widely available. The Environmental Management of Low-Grade Fuels will be valuable for industry specialists, policy makers, students and all who are concerned with the life cycle of these materials. Mary MacDonald is an affiliated scientist, and Michael Chadwick is a former director, at the Stockholm Environment Institute. Garegin Aslanian is a senior associate with the Institute for High Temperature Research in Moscow. Originally published in 1996

Urban Energy Transition

Author: Peter Droege
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080560465
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This compendium of 29 chapters from 18 countries contains both fundamental and advanced insight into the inevitable shift from cities dominated by the fossil-fuel systems of the industrial age to a renewable-energy based urban development framework. The cross-disciplinary handbook covers a range of diverse yet relevant topics, including: carbon emissions policy and practice; the role of embodied energy; urban thermal performance planning; building efficiency services; energy poverty alleviation efforts; renewable community support networks; aspects of household level bio-fuel markets; urban renewable energy legislation, programs and incentives; innovations in individual transport systems; global urban mobility trends; implications of intelligent energy networks and distributed energy supply and storage; and the case for new regional monetary systems and lifestyles. Presented are practical and principled aspects of technology, economics, design, culture and society, presenting perspectives that are both local and international in scope and relevance.

Infrastructure and Methodologies for the Justification of Nuclear Power Programmes

Author: Agustin Alonso
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857093770
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The potential development of any nuclear power programme should include a rigorous justification process reviewing the substantial regulatory, economic and technical information necessary for implementation, given the long term commitments involved in any new nuclear power project. Infrastructure and methodologies for the justification of nuclear power programmes reviews the fundamental issues and approaches to nuclear power justification in countries considering nuclear new build or redevelopment. Part one covers the infrastructure requirements for any new nuclear power programme, with chapters detailing the role and responsibilities of government, regulatory bodies and nuclear operator and the need for human resources and technical capability at the national level. Part two focuses on issues relevant to the justification process, including nuclear safety, radiation protection and emergency planning. Current designs and advanced reactors and radioactive waste management are also considered, along with the economic, social and environmental impacts of nuclear power development. Part three reviews the development of nuclear power programme, from nuclear power plant site selection and licensing, through construction and operation, and on to decommissioning. Finally, a series of valuable appendices detail the UK experience of justification, nuclear safety culture and training, and the multinational design evaluation programme (MDEP). With its distinguished editor and expert team of contributors, Infrastructure and methodologies for the justification of nuclear power programmes is an essential reference for international and national stakeholders in this field, particularly governmental, non-governmental and regulatory bodies, nuclear power operators and consultants. Offers a comprehensive analysis of the infrastructure and methodologies required to justify the creation of nuclear power programmes in any country Provides coverage of the main issues and potential benefit linked to nuclear power Reviews the implementation of a nuclear power programme with particular reference to the requirements and methods involved in construction

Environmental Performance Reviews

Author:
Publisher: Environmental Performance Revi
ISBN: 9789211170764
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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"The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) Environmental Performance Review Programme assesses progress made by individual countries in reconciling their economic and social development with environmental protection, as well as in meeting international commitments on environment and sustainable development. The Environmental Performance Review Programme assists countries to improve their environmental policies by making concrete recommendations for better policy design and implementation. Environmental Performance Reviews help to integrate environmental policies into sector-specific policies such as those in agriculture, energy, transport and health. Through the peer review process, the reviews promote dialogue among Governments about the effectiveness of environmental policies as well as the exchange of practical experience in implementing sustainable development and green economy initiatives. They also promote greater Government accountability to the public. The second Environmental Performance Review of Croatia examines the progress made by Croatia in the management of its environment since the country was first reviewed in 1999. The second review covers policymaking, planning, implementation and the financing of environmental policies and projects, as well as the protection of water resources, biodiversity and protected areas. It also looks into environmental considerations in the waste management and tourism."--Publisher description.

Potential for Sharing Nuclear Power Infrastructure Between Countries

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency
Publisher: IAEA
ISBN: 9789201121066
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The introduction or expansion of a nuclear power programme in a country and its successful execution is largely dependent on the network of national infrastructure, covering a wide range of organisational and material activities and capabilities. The wide extent of infrastructure needs require an investment that could be large or onerous for the national economy. The burden of infrastructure can be reduced significantly if a country forms a sharing partnership with other countries. The sharing could be organised regionally or internationally. It can include physical facilities, common programmes and knowledge, and will reflect in economic benefits. This publication provides guidance for analyzing and identifying the potential benefits of sharing nuclear power infrastructure during various stages of nuclear power project life cycle.