The Essence of Turbulence as a Physical Phenomenon

Author: Arkady Tsinober
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400771800
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book critically reexamines what turbulence really is, from a fundamental point of view and based on observations from nature, laboratories, and direct numerical simulations. It includes critical assessments and a comparative analysis of the key developments, their evolution and failures, along with key misconceptions and outdated paradigms. The main emphasis is on conceptual and problematic aspects, physical phenomena, observations, misconceptions and unresolved issues rather than on conventional formalistic aspects, models, etc. Apart from the obvious fundamental importance of turbulent flows, this emphasis stems from the basic premise that without corresponding progress in fundamental aspects there is little chance for progress in applications such as drag reduction, mixing, control and modeling of turbulence. More generally, there is also a desperate need to grasp the physical fundamentals of the technological processes in which turbulence plays a central role.

Interdisciplinary Planning

Author: Milan J. Dluhy
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 1412850479
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Critiques of traditional urban planning are numerous. The debate about direction within the profession and why urban planning seems to be in a state of despair continues. However, and as Milan J. Dluhy and Kan Chen note, the more critical issue is the future direction of planning, particularly interdisciplinary planning. In this regard, they note five principal areas of concern: planning is action research, planning is knowledge driven, planning is both process and technologically oriented, planning is interdisciplinary, and planning is adaptive to emerging concerns. Reviewing the literature and empirical studies on roles and attitudes, the editors note that planners seem committed to symbols and expressions of advocacy as well as traditional planning doctrine. This emphasizes rational planning and neutral policy roles for practitioners. Without a guiding theory to give a unified approach to practice, planners remain free to select the role most compatible with their personal background and training. This volume asserts that diversity need not be a drawback as long as careful analysis and open planning processes are used. This title will be an invaluable resource. Part I illustrates the critical dilemmas in planning, Part II focuses on planning skills and orientations, the third part focuses sharply on planning roles, while the final section answers a fundamental question: can interdisciplinary planning offer a more useful perspective than others on how to achieve more successful planning outcomes?

Fundamental Problematic Issues in Turbulence

Author: Albert Gyr
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3034886896
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A collection of contributions on a variety of mathematical, physical and engineering subjects related to turbulence. Topics include mathematical issues, control and related problems, observational aspects, two- and quasi-two-dimensional flows, basic aspects of turbulence modeling, statistical issues and passive scalars.

Structures and Algorithms

Author: Jens Erik Fenstad
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319729748
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book explains exactly what human knowledge is. The key concepts in this book are structures and algorithms, i.e., what the readers “see” and how they make use of what they see. Thus in comparison with some other books on the philosophy (or methodology) of science, which employ a syntactic approach, the author’s approach is model theoretic or structural. Properly understood, it extends the current art and science of mathematical modeling to all fields of knowledge. The link between structure and algorithms is mathematics. But viewing “mathematics” as such a link is not exactly what readers most likely learned in school; thus, the task of this book is to explain what “mathematics” should actually mean. Chapter 1, an introductory essay, presents a general analysis of structures, algorithms and how they are to be linked. Several examples from the natural and social sciences, and from the history of knowledge, are provided in Chapters 2–6. In turn, Chapters 7 and 8 extend the analysis to include language and the mind. Structures are what the readers see. And, as abstract cultural objects, they can almost always be seen in many different ways. But certain structures, such as natural numbers and the basic theory of grammar, seem to have an absolute character. Any theory of knowledge grounded in human culture must explain how this is possible. The author’s analysis of this cultural invariance, combining insights from evolutionary theory and neuroscience, is presented in the book’s closing chapter. The book will be of interest to researchers, students and those outside academia who seek a deeper understanding of knowledge in our present-day society.

Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics Two Volume Set

Author: Harindra Joseph Fernando
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466591145
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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With major implications for applied physics, engineering, and the natural and social sciences, the rapidly growing area of environmental fluid dynamics focuses on the interactions of human activities, environment, and fluid motion. A landmark for the field, this two-volume Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics presents the basic principles, fundamental flow processes, modeling techniques, and measurement methods used in the study of environmental motions. It also offers critical discussions of environmental sustainability related to engineering. The handbook features 81 chapters written by 135 renowned researchers from around the world. Covering environmental, policy, biological, and chemical aspects, it tackles important cross-disciplinary topics such as sustainability, ecology, pollution, micrometeorology, and limnology. Volume One: Overview and Fundamentals provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals, including introductory topics, general principles, and fundamental flow types. It emphasizes the close relevance of environmental fluid dynamics research in society, public policy, infrastructure, quality of life, security, and the law. The book explores established and emerging areas related to environmental fluid dynamics. It also describes sub-mesoscale flow processes and phenomena that form the building blocks of environmental motions. Volume Two: Systems, Pollution, Modeling, and Measurements explores the interactions between engineered structures and natural flows. It also discusses the major topic of environmental pollution, with a focus on numerical methods, predictive modeling, and computer infrastructure developments. The book also looks at practical aspects of laboratory experiments and field observations that validate quantitative predictions and help identify new phenomena and processes. As communities face existential challenges posed by climate change, rapid urbanization, and scarcity of water and energy, the study of environmental fluid dynamics becomes increasingly relevant. This wide-ranging handbook is a valuable resource for students, researchers, and policymakers working to better understand natural motions and how they affect and are influenced by anthropogenic activities.

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

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The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is the premier public resource on scientific and technological developments that impact global security. Founded by Manhattan Project Scientists, the Bulletin's iconic "Doomsday Clock" stimulates solutions for a safer world.

Reductionism Emergence and Levels of Reality

Author: Sergio Chibbaro
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319063618
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Scientists have always attempted to explain the world in terms of a few unifying principles. In the fifth century B.C. Democritus boldly claimed that reality is simply a collection of indivisible and eternal parts or atoms. Over the centuries his doctrine has remained a landmark, and much progress in physics is due to its distinction between subjective perception and objective reality. This book discusses theory reduction in physics, which states that the whole is nothing more than the sum of its parts: the properties of things are directly determined by their constituent parts. Reductionism deals with the relation between different theories that address different levels of reality, and uses extrapolations to apply that relation in different sciences. Reality shows a complex structure of connections, and the dream of a unified interpretation of all phenomena in several simple laws continues to attract anyone with genuine philosophical and scientific interests. If the most radical reductionist point of view is correct, the relationship between disciplines is strictly inclusive: chemistry becomes physics, biology becomes chemistry, and so on. Eventually, only one science, indeed just a single theory, would survive, with all others merging in the Theory of Everything. Is the current coexistence of different sciences a mere historical venture which will end when the Theory of Everything has been established? Can there be a unified description of nature? Rather than an analysis of full reductionism, this book focuses on aspects of theory reduction in physics and stimulates reflection on related questions: is there any evidence of actual reduction? Are the examples used in the philosophy of science too simplistic? What has been endangered by the search for (the) ultimate truth? Has the dream of reductionist reason created any monsters? Is big science one such monster? What is the point of embedding science Y within science X, if predictions cannot be made on that basis?