The Essence of Turbulence as a Physical Phenomenon

Author: Arkady Tsinober
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400771800
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
This book critically reexamines what turbulence really is, from a fundamental point of view and based on observations from nature, laboratories, and direct numerical simulations. It includes critical assessments and a comparative analysis of the key developments, their evolution and failures, along with key misconceptions and outdated paradigms. The main emphasis is on conceptual and problematic aspects, physical phenomena, observations, misconceptions and unresolved issues rather than on conventional formalistic aspects, models, etc. Apart from the obvious fundamental importance of turbulent flows, this emphasis stems from the basic premise that without corresponding progress in fundamental aspects there is little chance for progress in applications such as drag reduction, mixing, control and modeling of turbulence. More generally, there is also a desperate need to grasp the physical fundamentals of the technological processes in which turbulence plays a central role.

Interdisciplinary Planning

Author: Milan J. Dluhy
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 1412850479
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Critiques of traditional urban planning are numerous. The debate about direction within the profession and why urban planning seems to be in a state of despair continues. However, and as Milan J. Dluhy and Kan Chen note, the more critical issue is the future direction of planning, particularly interdisciplinary planning. In this regard, they note five principal areas of concern: planning is action research, planning is knowledge driven, planning is both process and technologically oriented, planning is interdisciplinary, and planning is adaptive to emerging concerns. Reviewing the literature and empirical studies on roles and attitudes, the editors note that planners seem committed to symbols and expressions of advocacy as well as traditional planning doctrine. This emphasizes rational planning and neutral policy roles for practitioners. Without a guiding theory to give a unified approach to practice, planners remain free to select the role most compatible with their personal background and training. This volume asserts that diversity need not be a drawback as long as careful analysis and open planning processes are used. This title will be an invaluable resource. Part I illustrates the critical dilemmas in planning, Part II focuses on planning skills and orientations, the third part focuses sharply on planning roles, while the final section answers a fundamental question: can interdisciplinary planning offer a more useful perspective than others on how to achieve more successful planning outcomes?

Structures and Algorithms

Author: Jens Erik Fenstad
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319729748
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
This book explains exactly what human knowledge is. The key concepts in this book are structures and algorithms, i.e., what the readers “see” and how they make use of what they see. Thus in comparison with some other books on the philosophy (or methodology) of science, which employ a syntactic approach, the author’s approach is model theoretic or structural. Properly understood, it extends the current art and science of mathematical modeling to all fields of knowledge. The link between structure and algorithms is mathematics. But viewing “mathematics” as such a link is not exactly what readers most likely learned in school; thus, the task of this book is to explain what “mathematics” should actually mean. Chapter 1, an introductory essay, presents a general analysis of structures, algorithms and how they are to be linked. Several examples from the natural and social sciences, and from the history of knowledge, are provided in Chapters 2–6. In turn, Chapters 7 and 8 extend the analysis to include language and the mind. Structures are what the readers see. And, as abstract cultural objects, they can almost always be seen in many different ways. But certain structures, such as natural numbers and the basic theory of grammar, seem to have an absolute character. Any theory of knowledge grounded in human culture must explain how this is possible. The author’s analysis of this cultural invariance, combining insights from evolutionary theory and neuroscience, is presented in the book’s closing chapter. The book will be of interest to researchers, students and those outside academia who seek a deeper understanding of knowledge in our present-day society.

Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences

Author: Donatella Della Porta
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139474596
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
A revolutionary textbook introducing masters and doctoral students to the major research approaches and methodologies in the social sciences. Written by an outstanding set of scholars, and derived from successful course teaching, this volume will empower students to choose their own approach to research, to justify this approach, and to situate it within the discipline. It addresses questions of ontology, epistemology and philosophy of social science, and proceeds to issues of methodology and research design essential for producing a good research proposal. It also introduces researchers to the main issues of debate and contention in the methodology of social sciences, identifying commonalities, historic continuities and genuine differences.

Fundamental Problematic Issues in Turbulence

Author: Albert Gyr
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3034886896
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
A collection of contributions on a variety of mathematical, physical and engineering subjects related to turbulence. Topics include mathematical issues, control and related problems, observational aspects, two- and quasi-two-dimensional flows, basic aspects of turbulence modeling, statistical issues and passive scalars.

Hydrodynamic Instability and Transition to Turbulence

Author: Akiva M. Yaglom
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400742371
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
This book is a complete revision of the part of Monin & Yaglom's famous two-volume work "Statistical Fluid Mechanics: Mechanics of Turbulence" that deals with the theory of laminar-flow instability and transition to turbulence. It includes the considerable advances in the subject that have been made in the last 15 years or so. It is intended as a textbook for advanced graduate courses and as a reference for research students and professional research workers. The first two Chapters are an introduction to the mathematics, and the experimental results, for the instability of laminar (or inviscid) flows to infinitesimal (in practice "small") disturbances. The third Chapter develops this linear theory in more detail and describes its application to particular problems. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with instability to finite-amplitude disturbances: much of the material has previously been available only in research papers.

Reductionism Emergence and Levels of Reality

Author: Sergio Chibbaro
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319063618
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Scientists have always attempted to explain the world in terms of a few unifying principles. In the fifth century B.C. Democritus boldly claimed that reality is simply a collection of indivisible and eternal parts or atoms. Over the centuries his doctrine has remained a landmark, and much progress in physics is due to its distinction between subjective perception and objective reality. This book discusses theory reduction in physics, which states that the whole is nothing more than the sum of its parts: the properties of things are directly determined by their constituent parts. Reductionism deals with the relation between different theories that address different levels of reality, and uses extrapolations to apply that relation in different sciences. Reality shows a complex structure of connections, and the dream of a unified interpretation of all phenomena in several simple laws continues to attract anyone with genuine philosophical and scientific interests. If the most radical reductionist point of view is correct, the relationship between disciplines is strictly inclusive: chemistry becomes physics, biology becomes chemistry, and so on. Eventually, only one science, indeed just a single theory, would survive, with all others merging in the Theory of Everything. Is the current coexistence of different sciences a mere historical venture which will end when the Theory of Everything has been established? Can there be a unified description of nature? Rather than an analysis of full reductionism, this book focuses on aspects of theory reduction in physics and stimulates reflection on related questions: is there any evidence of actual reduction? Are the examples used in the philosophy of science too simplistic? What has been endangered by the search for (the) ultimate truth? Has the dream of reductionist reason created any monsters? Is big science one such monster? What is the point of embedding science Y within science X, if predictions cannot be made on that basis?

Advances in Wave Turbulence

Author: Victor Shrira
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814520802
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
Wave or weak turbulence is a branch of science concerned with the evolution of random wave fields of all kinds and on all scales, from waves in galaxies to capillary waves on water surface, from waves in nonlinear optics to quantum fluids. In spite of the enormous diversity of wave fields in nature, there is a common conceptual and mathematical core which allows to describe the processes of random wave interactions within the same conceptual paradigm, and in the same language. The development of this core and its links with the applications is the essence of wave turbulence science (WT) which is an established integral part of nonlinear science. The book comprising seven reviews aims at discussing new challenges in WT and perspectives of its development. A special emphasis is made upon the links between the theory and experiment. Each of the reviews is devoted to a particular field of application (there is no overlap), or a novel approach or idea. The reviews cover a variety of applications of WT, including water waves, optical fibers, WT experiments on a metal plate and observations of astrophysical WT. Contents:Wave Turbulence, A Story Far from Over (Alan C Newell and Benno Rumpf)Fluctuations of the Energy Flux in Wave Turbulence (S Aumaître, E Falcon and S Fauve)Wave Turbulence in Astrophysics (Sebastien Galtier)Optical Wave Turbulence (S K Turitsyn, S A Babin, E G Turitsyna, G E Falkovich, E V Podivilov and D V Churkin)Wave Turbulence in a Thin Elastic Plate: The Sound of the Kolmogorov Spectrum? (G Düring and N Mordant)Gravity Wave Turbulence in a Large Flume (R Bedard, S Lukaschuk and S Nazarenko)Towards a New Picture of Wave Turbulence (V I Shrira and S Y Annenkov) Readership: Researchers, professionals and graduate students in mathematical physics, energy studies, solid & fluid mechanics, and complex systems. Keywords:Wave Turbulence;Fluid Dynamics;Gravity Waves;Optical Turbulence;Capillary Waves;Wind Waves;Numerical Simulations;Random FieldsKey Features:Reflects recent formidable advances in, and presents a new picture of wave turbulence using a common mathematical modelExperimental and theoretical viewpoints on enhancing the predictive and descriptive powers of wave turbulenceReviews: “As a whole, this book is of high-quality, numerously illustrated and can be recommended for the specialists in the field, PhD students and all of readers who are interested in WT problems. The book will also be useful to academic teachers of nonlinear sciences.” Pure and Applied Geophysics